Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The 4 Different Types of Financial Aid Expert Guide

The 4 Different Types of Financial Aid Expert Guide SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips There are so many different types of financial aid out there, with some serving you better than others. This guide will demystify everything you need to know about the types of aid available to students. I’ll start with the various options available to you and include examples that you can check out for yourself. Then, I’ll tell you exactly where and how you can get your hands on this financial aid money. Finally, I’ll explain which types of aid you should take advantage of - and which types you should stay away from. Let's get started! What Are the Different Types of Financial Aid? Tackling financial aid can be overwhelming, but you might be relieved to know that there are only a few different types of aid out there. Once you get the basic info on each category of aid, you’ll be much better informed when it comes to getting the most (and the best) funding. The main differentiating factors between each aid category are: How you get the money Why you get the money Whether you have to pay the money back Here are the main aid types you should know about before you start looking for funding for college: Grants Grants are monetary awards that are typically based on financial need. If you receive a grant, you don’t have to repay the money at any point. Example: Pell Grant Loans Loans are sums of money that you borrow and then pay back on a monthly basis after you graduate. In addition to the original amount that you borrow (the principle), you’ll also be responsible for paying back an extra percentage of the loan amount (interest). Examples: Direct loans (subsidized and unsubsidized), Stafford loan, Perkins loan, Private loan Scholarships Scholarships are monetary awards similar to grants - you don’t have to pay them back at any point. Unlike grants, however; they’re often based on factors other than financial need, although need may be taken into account. Ultimately, scholarship eligibility can be based on almost anything depending on the goals of the person or entity that’s funding the scholarship. To give you some examples, here are some student characteristics that many scholarship programs tend to look for in their applicants: Strong academic records Volunteer experience Particular ethnic background Artistic skill Sports prowess Entrepreneurial interests Political ambitions Career goals Some combination of the above Examples: Gates Millennium, McDonald’s, Coca-Cola, Tylenol, Florida Bright Futures, Hispanic Scholarship Fund, Minority scholarships Work-Study A work-study award is a type of need-based â€Å"self-help† financial aid in the form of a wage subsidy. Ultimately, it’s meant to help students get jobs (especially on campus) because the subsidy makes the students less expensive for certain employers to hire. Some student jobs only hire people who have work-study awards. The work-study award pays for part of your hourly salary, and your employer pays the rest. You only â€Å"get† the money if you get a student job, and you don’t get any extra funding on top of your salary. The average work-study award is about $1,500, but the annual maximum tops out at $7,000. Check out our guide to the federal work study program to learn more. A student job might not be the most exciting way to get financial aid, but it can come with some perks. What Are the Most Important Sources of Financial Aid? Although there are only a few types of aid, funding for school can come from a bunch of different sources. The way you go about getting aid depends, of course, on where the money’s coming from. The main sources of student aid in the US are the federal government, state governments, the schools themselves, private organizations, and banks. Here, I’ll break down how you’d go about getting aid funding from each of these sources. Federal Financial Aid Types of aid given:Grants, loans, and work-study Aid eligibilitycriteria:There are quite a few eligibility criteria when it comes to accessing federal student aid. Although they may seem complicated, most of them aren’t hard to meet - the big things are that you have to have a high school diploma or GED, and you have to be accepted to a degree or certificate program. To make sure you meet all the necessary eligibility criteria, read our comprehensive guide to getting federal financial aid. How to apply:You apply for federal aid with theFree Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA. You only have to submit this one application in order to be considered for any and all forms of federal aid. You can even estimate your aid eligibility before you submit your FAFSA if you’re interested in knowing beforehand how much (and what types) of aid you’re likely to be awarded by using the FAFSA4caster. Examples: Pell Grant, federal loans State Financial Aid Different states have their own protocols, budgets, and eligibility criteria when it comes to state-based financial aid. Some states may use the FAFSA whereas others may have their own processes for determining aid eligibility (like Florida). You'll have to do your own research on your state of residency. Read moreabout state financial aid optionshere. Aid From Your School Types of aid given: Primarily grants and scholarships, sometimes loans Aid eligibility criteria:Some schools offer only need-based financial aid in the form of grants. If you get into the school, then you’re automatically eligible for need-based aid as determined by the school’s financial aid policies. The most generousfinancial aid policies are often based solely on need. Some schools offer need-based and merit-based financial aid. Eligibility criteria for merit-based scholarships might depend on your GPA, standardized test scores, or sports performance. How to apply:Many schools use the FAFSA to determine eligibility for need-based financial aid. Schools automatically get your FAFSA info if you list them on your application. Your college applications will also often serve as an automatic scholarship application - the admissions or financial aid office will offer scholarships to particularly competitive students in order to persuade them to attend that school. Some school-based scholarships have separate applications, however. I’d encourage you to check out theschool’s financial aid website (or contact theirfinancial aid officer) if you have questions about additional scholarship opportunities that might be available. Aid FromPrivate Organizations or Nonprofits Types of aid given: Primarily scholarships and grants Aid eligibility criteria:Eligibility criteria varies widely based on the type of student that each scholarship or grant program is targeting. The most common criteria centers around US citizenship and academic performance, but check out the scholarships listed earlierfor more examples. How to apply:There are some umbrella organizations where one application will allow you to beconsidered for multiple scholarships (e.g. the Hispanic Scholarship Fund). Most of the time, though, you have to submit a separate application for each scholarship program that you’re interested in. Often there’s overlap in what information scholarship applications ask for, so you may be able to recycle parts of your applications (like essays, for example). Examples:Check out our lists of top scholarships for high school juniors and seniors Aid From Banks and Financial Institutions Types of aid given:This is where you go if you need access to private loans Aid eligibility criteria:This will vary based on which institution you go to and how much money you’re looking to take out. Basically, you'll have to show that you’re responsible and reliable so that banks trust that you’ll pay themoney back. You can do this with a good credit history. The problem is that most young people don’t really have a credit history, which means that most students who want to take out private loans need someone else (usually a parent) with good credit to cosign on the loan. How to apply:You’d have to work directly with a bank to apply forthe student loans you hope to take out. It involves submitting personal and financial information to the financial institution. For more information, check out our step-by-step guide to getting a student loan. What Are the Best Types of Financial Aid? What Are the Worst? Although all of the above forms of financial aid can help you pay for school, not all of them come with the same perks and benefits. There are some types of aid that’ll serve you better in the long run. I’ve organized categories of aid into tiers, with Tier 1 being the most desirable and Tier 3 being the least desirable. You should pursue aid in this order - seek out Tier 1 aid first before filling any gaps with Tier 2 and 3. Think of your financial aid options like tiers on a really delicious cake: you shouldn't start cutting just anywhere! Tier 1: Grants and Scholarships Grants and scholarships are the most desirable forms of financial aid because they come in the form of free money, often with no strings attached. Some grants and scholarships are applied right to your bill - you often see this with federal and school-based aid. When this happens you don't actually see the money - you just see a lower (or even non-existent) bill. Other grants and scholarships are given directly to you. This means you have more freedom with how the money's spent, but it also means you haveto be responsible with money management. Ultimately, it's best to apply grant and scholarship money to academic bills first before using funds to pay for other things. Tier 2: Federal Loans and Federal Work Study Tier 2 offers some solid options for students and families who still need to cover costs after looking into grants and scholarships. These options don’t come in the form of â€Å"free† money, but that doesn’t mean they don’t come with some benefits. Federal Loans You have to pay federal loansback, so they’re obviously not as desirable as grants or scholarships. That being said, federal loans can come with perks that you won’t find with any other borrowing options. Many federal loan options come with competitive interest rates, lengthygrace periods, options for forgiveness or cancellation, and flexible repayment plans. If you have to borrow money, borrow federal loans first before turning to any private lenders. Work Study With a work study award, you don’t have to borrow any money at all. You do, however, have to get a job in order to see any cash. The good news is that the money you earn is yours to spend or save as you see fit. Check out our guide to the federal work study program to learn more. Tier 3: Private Loans You should only look into private loans if you can’t cover your expenses after getting as much Tier 1 and Tier 2 money as possible. You can borrow responsibly with private loans, but borrowing terms tend to be less favorable than what you’d see with federal loans. First, it'spretty much necessary to have a cosigner on a private loan if you don’t have a credit history - this means that someone else is on the hook for your debt if you're unable to pay back what you borrow. They don't comewithoptions for loan cancellation or forgiveness. Finally,private loans tend to have higher interest rates than federal loans because they're not subsidized. The bottom line: you ending up paying more in the long run with private loans than with other forms of financial aid. Final Thoughts: Paying for College Responsibly The average sticker price for a college education is pretty high these days - too high for the typical student to take on by herself. As a result, most US college students relies heavily on financial aid to help fund their education. Sometimes, it’s a bit too easy to take out large amounts of student loans (especially private loans) to cover high college expenses. Although this investment can pay off in the long run for some students, student loans can turn into a frustrating burden for many others. It’s important to take a long-term perspective when considering student loan options. For example, you may want to ask yourselfthe following: How much do you anticipate making after graduation, given your career goals? How much would your total monthly payment (principle + interest) be for all your loans after you graduate? Could you afford to make this monthly payment after covering all anticipated living expenses? Before you take on large student loans, talk to potential cosigners, parents, and guardians. Finally, it would be wise to get the perspective of a trusted college counselor orfinancial advisor before committing to paying back large sums of money. People with this type of experience may be able to point you in the rightdirection when it comes to paying for your education. "Paying for college responsibly" is code for "not taking out more loans than you can handle." What's Next? Now that you've covered the basics, you can start thinking strategically about how to budget for a college education. You might want to begin by learning about how, when, and why to save for college. After that, you should check out our complete guide to covering your college expenses. Knowing how to apply for financial aid is an important part of covering college expenses, of course. Maybe you have more complicated challenges ahead of you. If so, you might want to read more about how to pay for college without parents' help andhow to pay for college without loans. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Saturday, November 23, 2019

French Expressions Using Monter

French Expressions Using Monter The French verb monter literally means to go up and is also used in many idiomatic expressions. Learn how to be promoted, rise gently, turn up the volume, and more with this list of expressions with monter. Possible Meanings of Monter to go upto assembleto climb up/intoto editto mountto organize, set upto put upto riseto stageto take upto turn upto well up Expressions with Monter monter to go up to visit / work in (a city)monter bicycletteto cycle up; to ride a bikemonter bord (dun navire)to go on board a shipmonter chevalto get on a horse; to ride a horsemonter / jusquto come up tomonter /dans sa chambreto go up to ones roommonter là ©tageto go upstairsmonter piedto walk upmonter aux arbresto climb treesmonter dans lestime de quelquunto rise in someones estimationmonter dans un avionto board a planemonter dans un trainto board a trainmonter des maillesto cast on stitchesmonter en courantto run upmonter en flà ¨cheto soar (literally and figuratively)monter en gradeto be promotedmonter en lacetsto wind upwardsmonter en parallà ¨leto connect in parallelmonter en pente douceto rise gentlymonter en sà ©rieto connect in seriesmonter en titubantto stagger upmonter en trainto go up by trainmonter en voitureto drive up; to get into a carmonter le bourrichon quelquun (informal)to put ideas in someones headmonter le coup quelquun (fam)to take someone for a ridemonter lescalierto go up the stairsmonter la gamme (music)to go up the scalemonter la gardeto go/be on guardmonter le sonto turn the volume upmonter la tà ªte quelquunto get someone worked upmonter par lascenseurto take the elevator upmonter prà ©venir quelquunto go up and tell someonemonter quelque chose en à ©pingleto blow something all out of proportionmonter quelquun contre quelquunto set someone against someonemonter voir quelquunto go up and see someonemonter surto climb up onmonter sur le trà ´neto ascend to the thronemonter sur un arbreto climb a treemonter sur une bicycletteto get on a bicyclemonter sur une collineto climb a hillmonter sur une à ©chelleto climb a laddermonter un chevalto ride a horsemonter une cà ´teto go up a hillmonter un coupto plan a jobmonter une histoire pour dà ©shonorer quelquunto invent a scandal to ruin someones nameÇa fait monter les prix. It makes prices go up.Cest lartiste qui monte.Hes an up-and-coming artist.Cest lhomme qui monte.Hes on the way up (to fame).Cest une histoire montà ©e de toutes pià ¨ces.Its a complete fabrication.à ªtre montà © contreto be dead set againstfaire monter des blancs en neigeto beat egg whites into stiff peaksfaire monter quelquunto tell someone (e.g., a guest) to come upfaire monter ses valisesto have ones luggage taken upJe monte la garde (sign)Beware of dogLa moutarde me monte au nez.Im losing my temper.se monterto come to, amount tose monter le bourrichon (informal)to get all worked upse monter la tà ªte (pour un rien)to get all worked up (over nothing)Monter conjugations

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Reflection on team work asignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Reflection on team work asignment - Essay Example Earlier this semester we prepared a report discussing management and leadership styles of different organizations. It was identified that companies such as Proctor and Gamble has acquired significant position in the market on the basis of their profound leadership whereas on the other hand Royal bank of Scotland has undergone serious challenges due to their poor management. The report further discussed management and leadership approaches considering four other organizations. Preparation and presentation of the report was solely based on team work and group effectiveness. Here, we not only learned different theories related to leadership and management rather we also comprehended unique human behaviors in work place setting. My group comprised of four individuals; Alex, Ashley, Helena and Stella. All the activities and different presentation tasks were divided among team members. The team effectiveness and successful presentation was largely dependent upon clear communication and und erstanding among individuals. In order to discuss theories and models about team work it is important to first understand the fundamental concept of teams. Every individual working in a team is actually interdependent with respect to different tasks. Team members have to share the responsibility of positive or negative outcomes (Halverson, 2008). Moreover, the entire team must show itself as an integral social entity. Members should be able to manage all their conflicts and issues across the boundaries of an organization or an educational institution. Groups and teams have the basic difference of connection, for instance, teams are more connected whereas group members usually have loose connections (Halverson, 2008). Humans have highly dynamic personalities. They tend to act differently in particular workplace situations. Researchers argue that work place human behavior is specifically determined by analyzing multiple factors. Although work motivation,

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Evangelism and Colonialization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Evangelism and Colonialization - Essay Example Pedro Cabral is one of the most renowned explorers of the world for his discovery of Brazil in 1500. In 1549, the first governor general of Brazil was Tome de Sousa. During his period as governor general, there was an increase in evangelism in Brazil. Pedro Cabral explores the coast of Brazil under the orders from the King of Portugal (Beidelman, 73). The Portuguese signed the Treaty of Tordesillas that meant there was a division between Christians and non-Christians outside of Europe. The Jesuit missionaries spread Christianity to Brazil Indians. The missionaries clash with adventurers in Brazil with the main aim of capturing Indian and looking for minerals. The Jesuit missionaries play an important role in the spread of evangelism in Brazil and its surrounding areas (Rivera, PagaÃŒ n & Justo, 54). The Portuguese individuals turned to slavery to solve their labor problems. The presence of slaves led to the development of sugar industries in North East of the country. Brazil became the largest producer of sugar because the conditions in the country were favorable. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Spain and Portugal became the new states that promoted colonization in the world. The developed of skills to travel in the ocean meant that they could travel around the world in search of colonies. The discovery of ocean skills the world the Portuguese China trade between the 1514 and 1550 (Rivera, PagaÃŒ n & Justo, 54). Jorge Alvares was the first European Explorer to reach Asia. His arrival in China boosted trade within the region.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Why Japan attack Pearl Harbor Essay Example for Free

Why Japan attack Pearl Harbor Essay Japan was at war with China. Despite being a military superpower, their war with China was using up their resources. During that time, most of their resources especially oil were coming from the US. The US did not approve of Japanese aggression in China and they declared an embargo on Japan. This means they would stop supplying Japan with raw materials. So where would Japan get their resources to continue the war now? The Japanese High Command carefully discussed this and came up with the conclusion that the Dutch East Indies would be the best place to gain resources. But they knew that an attack on the Dutch East Indies would probably bring the US into the war. So they had to find a way to prevent the US from fighting with them until they conquered the Dutch East Indies. Thats when they planned Pearl Harbor. The goal of Pearl Harbor was to disable the American fleet for a few months to give them enough time to conquer the Dutch East Indies and to absorb its resources to finance their war in China and the US once the US navy was rebuilt. The Japanese were tired of negotiations with the United States. They wanted to continue their expansion within Asia but the United States had placed an extremely restrictive embargo on Japan in the hopes of curbing Japans aggression. Negotiations to solve their differences hadnt been going well. Rather than giving in to U.S. demands, the Japanese decided to launch a surprise attack against the United States in an attempt to destroy the United States naval power even before an official announcement of war was given. The Japanese practiced and prepared carefully for their attack on Pearl Harbor. They knew their plan was extremely risky. The probability of success depended heavily on complete surprise. On November 26, 1941, the Japanese attack force, led by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, left Etorofu Island in the Kurils (located northeast of Japan) and began its 3,000-mile journey across the Pacific Ocean. Sneaking six aircraft carriers, nine destroyers, two battleships, two heavy cruisers, one light cruiser, and three submarines across the Pacific Ocean was not an easy task. Worried that they might be spotted by another ship, the Japanese attack force continually zig-zagged and avoided major shipping lines. After a week and a half at sea, the attack force made it safely to its destination, about 230 miles north of  the Hawaiian island of Oahu. On the morning of December 7, 1941, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor began. At 6:00 a.m., the Japanese aircraft carriers began launching their planes amid rough sea. In total, 183 Japanese aircraft took to the air as part of the first wave of the attack on Pearl Harbor. At 7:15 a.m., the Japanese aircraft carriers, plagued by even rougher seas, launched 167 additional planes to participate in the second wave of the attack on Pearl Harbor. The first wave of Japanese planes reached the U.S. Naval Station at Pearl Harbor (located on the south side of the Hawaiian island of Oahu) at 7:55 a.m. on December 7, 1941. Just before the first bombs dropped on Pearl Harbor, Commander Mitsuo Fuchida, leader of the air attack, called out, Tora! Tora! Tora! (Tiger! Tiger! Tiger!), a coded message which told the entire Japanese navy that they had caught the Americans totally by surprise.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

time travel Essay -- essays research papers

For many years time travel was the stuff of science fiction. This was all just part of the world’s imagination until recently. Scientists now believe that the current laws of physics allow us to travel though time. They believe that we can now travel back to see our founding fathers sign the declaration of independence. We could travel to 2999 to witness the birth of the next new millennium. Such travel would require a machine capable of withstanding great pressures and incredible amounts of speed. The act of actually traveling though time is for the most part, agreed upon, but the implications of such travel is not so decided upon. Many different theorists have different views of what could happen and some go, as far as to say that if we did travel to the past, we would end up in a different universe that is a replica of this one. One of the most basic concepts is that of Dilation, a stretching of something. Some scientists believe that the main gateway to the past or future is a wormhole. Einstein’s general relativity theory explains about universal constants, this is important to understand the concepts of travel at light speed. Traveling to the past could create problems if someone tried to change something. This is a paradox. A few of these paradoxes are explained through the use of quantum mechanics. Sailing though the cosmos at the speed of light with no time passing us by, moving throughout time to witness the ancient Egyptians create their masterpieces. This is an exciting concept that we could actually formulate and make happen. Before the time of Einstein, Newton and other great investigators thought of space as an infinite expanse in which all things exist (Hewitt 213). We are in space and we live in it along with all of the planets and stars. It was never clear if the universe exists in space or space exists in the universe. Dose space exists outside the universe or only within the bounds of it. The similar question, does the universe exist only in time or does time only exist in the universe? Was there time before the universe, and will there be time after it ceases to exist? â€Å"Einstein’s answer to this is that time and space only exist within the universe. There is no time or space ‘outside.’(Hewitt 213)† Einstein said that space and time are two separate parts of a whole called space-time (Hewitt 213). To understand this, consider our presen... ... all his work. His younger self could reproduce the paintings and profoundly and irrevocably affecting the future of art. This would involve no creative energy by the â€Å"inventor.† The reproductions would exist because they are copies from the original and the originals exist because they are copies of the reproductions. No creative energy would ever have to be put forth to create these masterpieces. Because of the chronology principal time travel, by some, has been ruled out. The cosmos await us, and the history of our world is at our fingertips. Would we use this great power for good, bad, and wealth? All we have to do is get in our spaceship, set sail for the nearest wormhole, and hope for a little luck, and we can witness things only told in stories. Only the traveler can decided what he or she wishes to go back for. The theories today state that traveling through time is possible, however they do not say what could be the repercussions of our actions. This great frontier awaits us; we have the knowledge, and are slowly but surly developing the technology. Only time will tell when time itself no longer rules our lives as one of the chief amendments of the universal constitution.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Killings by Andre Dubus Essay

â€Å"Killings† by Andre Dubus is a short story about a father who seeks out vengeance for the murder of his twenty-one year old son only to learn that revenge will only make things worse. The father, Matt Fowler, is haunted by the tragedy that has befallen his youngest son. Retribution is a common human desire because people feel that it offers the truest form of justice; however, this action is against the law of the land and is thought of as reckless to pursue. The author uses foreshadowing, imagery, and dialogue to illustrate a tone of prudence when thinking of taking vengeance into one’s own hand. In the story the literary element of foreshadowing is used. The desire to get even is an emotion that is felt by all people and is not biased as to who feels it. That desire is displayed at the beginning of the story. This is shown when the author writes, â€Å"Matt’s older son, Steve, turned to him as the family left the grave and walked between their friends, and said: ‘I should kill him’† (1203). This ominous statement shows how the feeling of revenge causes the character to not think of the consequences when pursuing vengeance for what is thought of as true justice. The writer further establishes how the feeling of retribution clouds cautious thinking through foreshadowing when he writes, â€Å"‘I’ve got a . 38 I’ve had for years, I take it to the store now†¦She knows I started carrying it after the first time she saw him in town. She knows it’s in case I see him and there’s some kind of situation. ’† (1204). This indicates that not only is revenge to be sought out but also the means by which Matt Fowler plans to exact his vengeance without any thought of consequence. The author’s use of imagery creates a picture of how the father’s vengeance for his son’s murder takes place when Matt waits on the murderer to get off of work so that he can take the killer and his car back to the killer’s house. The author describes the scene with vivid detail when he writes, â€Å"†¦he stopped and aimed over the hood at Strout’s blue shirt ten feet away†¦They drove across the empty front lot and onto the road. Willis’s headlights shining into the car; then back through the town, the sea wall left hiding the beach, though far out Matt could see the ocean; he uncocked the revolver: on the right were the places, most with their neon signs off, that did so much business in summer†¦the street itself empty of traffic†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (1209). The description of the abduction of the killer creates a mental picture to the reader of how the father planned to obtain the murderer and exact his revenge. The use of magery is also evident when the author describes the preparations taken for getting even when the author writes, â€Å"Beyond the marsh they drove through woods, Matt thinking now of the hole he and Willis dug last Sunday afternoon†¦as they dug into the soft earth on the knoll they had chosen because elms and maples sheltered it† (1210). The prose writer not only creates a picture of how the father obtains the murder to exact retaliation but also where the killer would be disposed of. The author uses imagery to show that the character had plenty of opportunities to have second thoughts of seeking vengeance but used no caution and thought only of revenge. The author’s use of dialogue enhances the tone of caution when thinking of taking vengeance outside of the legal system. This is apparent in the father’s reply to the murderer when the author writes, â€Å"‘You’re not going to jail’† (1212). Matt Fowler’s response to the killer not going to jail through dialogue shows that he has no intentions of letting the justice system handle Strout’s punishment. The author further reinforces the tone through dialogue when he show’s the father’s distaste with the legal system. This is illustrated when the scribe writes, â€Å"‘I’ll do twenty years, Mr. Fowler; at least. I’ll be forty-six years old. ’ ‘That’s nine years younger than I am,’ Matt said†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (1214). The father’s response gives the reader insight to Matt’s thoughts of true justice and how no caution was used when pursuing this course of action. In conclusion, the author uses foreshadowing, imagery, and dialogue to set a tone of caution when thinking about taking vengeance outside of the legal system. This desire for reprisal is all too common, especially to those who have been victimized, to feel that if one wrong is committed that another wrong will cancel it out. Revenge is ill advised by most as people who say two wrongs don’t make a right and the memories will never fade. The story, â€Å"Killings† by Andre Dubus, illustrates how a father seeks out revenge for the murder of his twenty-one year old son and takes matters into his own hands only to discover that revenge only makes matters in his life worse.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Chemistry Bonding Notes and Lewis Dot Structures

CChemistry Exam #2 Study Guide (10/07/12) I. Bonding a. Ionic Bonding i. Electrons are transferred ii. Ions are held together by electrostatic force b. Covalent Bonding iii. Electrons are somehow shared iv. Electrons are attracted to nuclei (shared) II. Electronegativity c. The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself d. Measured on Pauling Scale e. Most electronegative: Fluorine. Then Oxygen. f. Depending on electronegativity of X and Y, there are 3 possibilities: v. X and Y have identical electronegativities (Non Polar) vi.X and Y have dissimilar electronegativities (Polar)- Y is slightly negative; has greater control than slightly positive X vii. X and Y have very different electronegativities (Ionic)- Y is negative; has full control g. Polar Covalent viii. Size depends on electronegative difference ix. Arrow points to where electrons are dragged to x. Dipole Moment measured in Debyes (D) 1. [Dipole Momenti = Q*r] xi. Possesses some ionic character 2. The bigger the difference†¦ a. The more polar the bond b. The bigger the dipole c. The more ionic in character III.Electron Configuration for Ions h. Atom forms an ion with electron configuration of the closest noble gas xii. True for representative S and P block xiii. Atom will lose up to three or gain up to three electrons 3. For D-block elements d. Outer S electrons lost before outer D electrons 4. For P-block elements e. Outer P lost before the outer S electrons, which are lost before outer D IV. Ionic Radii i. Size descriptions based on charge xiv. Positive ions are always smaller than the parent atom xv. Negative ions are always larger than the parent atom j.Periodic trend xvi. Ionic radii increase within a column going from top to bottom xvii. Ionic radii decrease within a row going from left to right V. Isoelectronic Ions k. Have the same number of electrons l. Radius decreases as atomic number increases VI. Compounds m. Ionic xviii. High Melting Point and Boiling Poin t (brittle solids) xix. Soluble in polar solvents like water xx. Insoluble in nonpolar solvents like Hexane xxi. Metal and Nonmetal xxii. Any compound that conducts electric current when melted n. Covalent xiii. Low Melting Point and Boiling Point (solid/liquid/gas) xxiv. Insoluble in polar solvents (exception: Sugar! ) xxv. Soluble in nonpolar solvents xxvi. Nonmetal and Nonmetal o. Crystals xxvii. All group 1 Alkali metals and Group 7 Halogens make crystals xxviii. Sublimation: solid to a gas! VII. Lattice Energy p. Measure of how strongly ions interact together (compares sizes of ions) xxix. enthalpy of formation of the ionic compound from gaseous ions and as such is invariably exothermic xxx. he energy required to completely separate one mole of a solid ionic compound into gaseous ionic constituents q. Goes to closer energy (emits energy as heat)- always more negative number r. (+) = endothermic (absorbing energy) s. (-) = exothermic (releasing energy) t. Energy is released! xxx i. =K[(Q1Q2)/(r)] xxxii. Large for small â€Å"r† (average distance between ions)- higher boiling point, more stable, difficult to separate, but still fragile xxxiii. Large â€Å"Q†- highly charged xxxiv. Lattice energy goes down in same group VIII.Bond Order u. Triple Bond (as bond energy increases, bond length decreases! ) xxxv. Highest Bond Order xxxvi. Strongest xxxvii. Shortest v. Double Bond w. Single Bond xxxviii. Weakest xxxix. Longest xl. Lowest Bond Order IX. Resonance x. More than one Lewis Dot Structure can be drawn for the same arrangement (skeleton) of atoms. Only the bonds differ! y. True structure is a ‘hybrid’ or ‘blend’ of possible resonance structures z. Not double or single bonds, but all bonds with order 1. 3333 {. Shuffling of electrons |. Formal Charge li. Look at one atom at a time (sum of Formal Charge must add up to over all charge of structure) xlii. (# of valance e- on free atom) – [(# of lone pair e-) + (# o f bonds)] X. Octet Rule Violators }. Always OBEY the octet rule: B, C, O, N, and F. ~. 5 EXCEPTIONS we should know: xliii. ________________________ . Radical- odd number of electrons . Biradical- EVEN number of electrons – has TWO UNPAIRED electrons (O2) . Groups 5-8 (3rd row and lower can have more than 8 valance) XI. VSEPR Theory . â€Å"Valance Shell Electron Pair Repulsion† Bonds and lone pairs repel (more lone pairs= squeezed) . Determines the likely shape of a molecule . Does not describe how the bonding occurs . Steps: xliv. Draw Lewis Dot Structure xlv. Count RHED (Region of High Electron Density) xlvi. Predict electronic geometry (arrangement of RHED) xlvii. Determine molecular geometry xlviii. Are bonds polar? xlix. Is the molecule polar? . If dipoles cancel out (the same), it is non polar! . Doesn’t matter about net dipole direction, it will be polar! . Pairs of diploes not arranged to cancel (different sizes)

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Grade 11 IPT Term 1 2004 essays

Grade 11 IPT Term 1 2004 essays Artificial Intelligence Minor Project (AI 1) The topic I chose for my system is European flags. I chose this topic because I will try to help people know what European flags are which. In my system there will be a series of questions asked to the user to help classify different flags. Some limitations Ive made are that I have only chosen flags for the most popular and well known countries. To use my system effectively you answer the questions asked to the best of your ability and when you have answered all the questions then you should reach a conclusion. That conclusion will be the name and picture of your flag. I think that my expert system is fairly well done. It helps the user classify the different types of European flags. It also gives a little insight to the country by giving it a brief overview. I believe that my system is extremely helpful to someone trying to find different flag names that are in Europe. If I were to rate my system out of ten, I would rate it 6/10. Some of the weak points in my expert system is that there are so many European flags and I only chose a small quantity of them. This means that there are a lot of flags left out and there is a fair possibility that people want to know those certain flags. Some of the future enhancements are increasing the amount of conclusions in the memory bank. This means increasing the number of flags. I would also if I had plenty of spare time do the world flags and then help other people know all the world flags. ...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Intern Bible Dos and Donts in the Workplace

The Intern Bible Dos and Donts in the Workplace You may be reading this moments before your first day as an intern and are nervously wondering, â€Å"What exactly is proper intern etiquette?† First off, congrats on the internship! You must have done something right to land the position. Now, just try not to mess it up. Just kidding. Actually, it’s important to remember that employers create internship programs as an opportunity for learning. Along the way, mistakes are going to be made and that’s not a bad thing – as long as you learn from them. In an effort to lessen your stress and increase your chance for success, here’s some do’s and don’ts to help you navigate the murky waters of interning.Do seek feedbackIt is crucial for an intern to seek feedback from their supervisor. It demonstrates that you are coachable. Seeking feedback takes all of the guesswork out of how so you can â€Å"wow† your boss. Feedback allows you to improve and learn how you can add value. As an inte rn, seeking feedback will communicate to your boss that you are highly self-aware and motivated to improve.Do clarify expectationsClarifying expectations is crucial as an intern. Telling the hiring team exactly what you want out of the internship is going to ensure that you are not coming to a job every day that you hate. No boss intentionally makes an intern’s job miserable. The majority of the time an unfulfilling internship is a result of individuals not clarifying exactly what they want out of the job. If you want to get better at presentations, tell your boss that. They want to teach you about what you want to learn and more.Don’t gossipNot only is gossiping at work unprofessional, but it also creates a toxic environment.   Gossiping damages trust and will have your coworkers hesitant to share things with you. As an intern, you may hear your manager gossiping about others in the office, but that does not warrant you to join in. Avoid joining in on gossip, and en sure you are doing everything in your power to avoid being the target of gossip. Dressing appropriate, not oversharing, and being mindful of what you post on social media are all effective ways to avoid being the topic of workplace gossip.Don’t be dependentNo supervisor wants to apprehensively hand their intern a pile of work, worrying if it will actually get done or not. In the workplace today, task-oriented jobs are seizing to exist – and so are bosses who micromanage. Be confident in your abilities to complete a task, large or small. Use this time as an intern to be independent.Don’t neglect networkingOffering to take your other fellow interns to lunch during the week is a nice gesture, but not the key to getting yourself a full-time offer once your internship is up. It’s crucial, as an intern, to network with the other full-time employees at the office. This could be your direct boss or other members of the full-time team. However, this does not mean to just have surface level relationships with a variety of people. The most useful networks are those with strong ties. The more someone knows you and believes in you, the more  likely they will be to vouch for you, think of you first when an opportunity opens, and be a reference to add to your resume.  About the Author:Margaret Foley is a senior at Texas Christian University, where she is majoring in Communications Studies and minoring in English and Graphic Design. She is currently interning at Varghese Summersett, a criminal defense law firm in Fort Worth, Texas.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Ethics Perspective in Applied Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Ethics Perspective in Applied Leadership - Essay Example The author of the paper states that in the Kant categorical imperative perspective, the company should do what is right. Matters considered right always have benefits to the people that require showing concern to other people. Besides, what is right for the company requires acceptance from the majority hence considering their opinions.  Communitarianism deals with considering the responsibilities in the community rather than a single individual. In the organization, this ethical perspective focuses on promoting the values that people share in addressing differences in the cultures. In the process of addressing the cultural difference and using only universal values, leaders always show concern for every individual and implement altruism in the process. Considering others rather than a single individual is an action that is in altruism. The showing of concern before and in the process of trying to promote communal values is an act of altruism. Hence, it is justifiable to state that altruism is the prerequisite of other ethical perspectives such as utilitarianism and communitarianism. The process of using these ethical perspectives requires consideration and concern to other people before taking actions.