Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The Charmed Circle By Rubin Essay - 1572 Words

Question Four The charmed circle explained by Rubin is a system that illustrates that â€Å"sexuality that is ‘good,’ ‘normal,’ and ‘natural’ should ideally be heterosexual, marital, monogamous, reproductive, and non-commercial† (1984:101). Therefore any other sex act that goes against the charmed circle is deemed as negative or bad to society. Essentially the charmed circle is a structure of how cultures evaluate sexual acts. The system of the charmed circle violates the standards of fairness, or the American ideals discussed in previous lectures. Key components of American ideology illustrates that the system allows for social arrangement, individual liberty, and attaining potential freedom (Walden 2016). In this, creating a structure that limits people from fulfilling their freedom and respect it goes against the American ideals. Rubin also discusses that all heterosexual experiences, whether pleasurable or not, is considered a good encounter (1984: 101). For instance, if a man were to force a woman to have sex with him this would be considered a good encounter even though law would constitute it as rape. This is another example of the charmed circle violating American ideals due to the system not recognizing unwanted heterosexual experiences as negative. On the other hand, democratic morality evaluates sexual behavior â€Å"by the way partners treat one another, the level of mutual consideration, the presence or absence of coercion, and the quantity and quality of the pleasureShow MoreRelatedThe Charmed Circle873 Words   |  4 Pagesidea of the â€Å"charmed circle†. Referring to sexuality Rubin begins to illustrate her idea of the â€Å"charmed circle† by challenging sexual essentialism (the idea that sex is a natural force) by saying that it is or can be socially created and that it is not transhistorical or eternally unchanging. This idea of the â€Å"charmed circle† creates certain ideas of femininity through advertising and movies, and puts great pressure and impact of the lives of people who do not fall into the â€Å"circle†. In this paperRead MoreAlthough Love May Concern The Intimate And Micro-Level1305 Words   |  6 Pagesand a woman,† underscoring the ways in which LGBT communities ar e systematically left out of the conventional family structure, and by extension, marriage. The exclusion of these marginalized communities through policies exemplify Gayle Rubin’s â€Å"charmed circle,† which denote the â€Å"othering† of unconventional sexualities and sexual acts. By combining Rubin’s intersectional framework and the idea of a â€Å"postmodern family,† the Philippine Family Code can be deconstructed to reveal the organization of systemsRead MoreTelevision s Impact On America s Society Essay838 Words   |  4 Pagesabout sexuality argued by Gayle Rubin in her â€Å"The Charmed Circle† she wrote about in her â€Å"Thinking Sex† essay. Rubin categorizes the forms of sexuality into the ‘good’ and the ‘bad’. In the ‘inner circle, signify ‘acceptable’ types of sex such as heterosexual, reproductive, marriage and private. On the other hand, the ‘outer circle’ symb olizes ‘abnormal’ types of sexuality such as homosexual, promiscuous, and unmarried. ( The two classificationsRead MoreNew Orleans : A Controversial Theory Of The Politics Of Sexuality Essay1768 Words   |  8 PagesVitter, who just unsuccessfully ran for governor of the Bayou State. Marked with three prostitute scandals, he was unable to win the trust of Louisiana. But why is it that a sexual scandal can leave such political destruction in its path? Gayle Rubin offers an answer in their text, â€Å"Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality. Due to Vitter s position of political power, he was societally expected to strictly follow sexual conduct. By failing to do so, he lost the trustRead MoreThe American Civil War : Censorship And The Passage Of Time1603 Words   |  7 Pagessoldiers visited brothels, polite society shunned prostitution. The application of Gayle Rubin ’s â€Å"Charmed Circle† can be useful in understanding the ways in which prostitution existed as a form of queer sexuality within the context of the Civil War. The sex had by prostitutes, for example, was had for money, occurred between unmarried individuals for non-procreative reasons, and was inherently promiscuous (Rubin, 454). All of these factors discredited sex workers and labeled them deviant and expendableRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 Pagesincluding those standing behind the counter at local stores. And these stores could be close, even across the street or down the block from each other. Alas, by 2008 as an economic downturn hit the country, Starbucks’s fortunes worsened and its charmed growth path became rocky. HOWARD SCHULTZ Howard Schultz rose from humble beginnings in Brooklyn. He was a quarterback at Canarsie High, a school so poor it didn’t even have a football field. Northern Michigan University offered him a football

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Essay about Motivation Theory in Business - 2189 Words

A simple game of bingo, if analyzed closely, can be shown to be a tedious task consisting of a repetitive action that occurs after being prompted by a repetitive stimulus. The skill level needed to make that action is low, and the variability in the rules of the game rarely changes. This game is not unlike many of the jobs that can be classified as having low motivational potential scores (Hackman, et al). So why do people not only enjoy playing games like bingo, but actually pay money to have the pleasure? The answer directly points to the motivating factors of monetary rewards and recognition which are provided on a variable-ratio schedule. Motivation by reinforcement (Miller). There are many theories regarding motivation with the most†¦show more content†¦Also, studies demonstrate that different workers are motivated by different factors be them intrinsic or extrinsic. Centers and Bugental’s studies on intrinsic and extrinsic job motivation among different segments of the working population, show that while skilled workers are motivated the intrinsic rewards of their employment, lesser skilled workers in jobs that are deemed routine were motivated by extrinsic factors such as incentives and bonuses. This fact can be reaffirmed by analyzing union contacts and job descriptions in an industry like the steel industry. Employees who have routine jobs or jobs that have little in the way of decision making are often provided high monetary incentives based on productivity and quality. These ideas do not discount the work of Herzberg and Maslow, but instead show that as needs progress up the hierarchy ladder, focus must be made on what a manager should do to provide their workers with what they lack, an increasingly difficult task that have influenced the motivational theories of job enrichment (Hackman, et al. 1975). Job enrichment efforts have proven somewhat successful in improving performance and attitude amongst employees. Job enrichment theories are analogous to why people enjoy games so much. M.Show MoreRelatedBusiness Management : Motivation Theories Analysis Paper1384 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Management (Motivation Theories Analysis Paper) By Ethan Cole Table of Contents Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 1.0 Motivation Types†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.2.0 Motivational Theories†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.....2.1 Investigation into Workplace Satisfaction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..3.0 Evaluation of Performance Pay / Recommendation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦4.0 Appendix†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..5.0 Appendix†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦5Read MorePersonal Statement : Motivation Theories That Exist Within A Business Or An Organization1294 Words   |  6 Pagesdynamics that exist within a business or an organization, some of these topics were significant to me and some were not. For this paper, I have chosen to highlight motivation, cultural awareness, leadership, and change because these four issues are the most frequent issues that I face regularly in my leadership position. One of the challenges that have interested me for a long time is how to motivate the people who work for me. Prior to doing my first paper on motivation, I believed that money isRead MoreMotivation, The, Health, And Wellness Company Essay1602 Words   |  7 Pages2.5 motivational internal - Charlotte Cowie Motivation is the will to work. This comes from the enjoyment of the work itself and/or from the desire to achieve certain goals. There are many ways in which a manager goes about increasing motivation to improve many aspects of the business such as efficiency. My chosen business to study is Nestle. Nestle is the world s leading Nutrition, Health and Wellness company. Nestlà © New Zealand is a subsidiary of Nestlà © SA, Within the New ZealandRead MoreDavid Mcclelland And His Achievement Theory1199 Words   |  5 Pageshis Achievement Motivation Theory, also commonly referred to as Need Achievement Theory, and its relationship to leadership and motivation within business. Furthermore, this manuscript will observe material from various fields as it correlates to the overarching principle of leadership and motivation within business management. Throughout the course of Management 321: Leadership and Motivation, various theories were reviewed surrounding the subjects o f both leadership and motivation, their interrelatednessRead MoreHr Theories of Motivation1667 Words   |  7 Pages1. Introduction The companies’ leaders can improve their business by investing in development new products or services, improvement product or service quality, and enhancement marketing and sales. Another possible investment is improving the way a company manages its people – tends to receive less attention. Human Resource Management is very important for business as it involves a variety of activities that deal with the ‘human side of organisation’ (Griffiths and Wall, 2005). ArmstrongRead MoreEmployee Work Motivation 1386 Words   |  6 Pagesimportant to an organization, because work motivation relates to the performance of employees and their behaviour towards the organization (Katzell Thompson, 1990). â€Å"Managers see motivation as an integral part of the performance equation at all levels, while researchers see it as a fundamental building block in the development of useful theories of effective management practice (Steers, Mowday, Shapiro, 2004, p. 379)à ¢â‚¬ . In this study the role of work motivation of prospective employees played a centralRead MoreTheories of Motivation Concepts Table1503 Words   |  6 Pages1) Choose one of the theories from the Motivation Concepts Table and describe how this theory would and would not be applicable if applied to two or more workplace situations drawn from your personal experience. Motivation has become a term as ubiquitous as it is undefinable. What exactly is motivation and how is it used to achieve a desired result? In many circumstances, individuals are motivated by different aspects at different times in their lives. Compounding this issue further are the environmentalRead MoreWhy Do We Do What You Do?1508 Words   |  7 PagesMotivation can be defined as the commitment to do something to get closer to your goal (Gagn and Deci, 2005). However, in the perspective of a business it is the determination to work and the willingness to be productive. There are a variety of views on what motivates employees and leads them to their full potential and that has been the concern of theorists and entrepreneurs for the past century like Maslow, Herzberg, Elton Mayo and Fredrick Winslow Taylor. Many theories have been made to understandRead MoreStudent Motivation : Students Motivation991 Words   |  4 PagesSTUDENT MOTIVATION IN COLLEGE Motivation is defined as the acts or psychological processes that arouse and direct people’s goal-directed behavior (Kinicki Williams, 2012) and that drives them to the expenditure of effort to accomplish results (DuBrin, 2008, cited in Williams Williams, 2011); seen that way, motivation is inherent to the human being and of complete necessity in order to realize any endeavor. It’s pertinent to cite H. W. Beecher who said: â€Å"God made man to go by motives, and he willRead MoreHerzberg s Motivation Hygiene Theory891 Words   |  4 PagesInstitute of CPA’s discussed the ideas of Herzberg s motivation-hygiene theory in regards to the future of American business, in the article Job attitudes: The motivation-hygiene theory. The purpose of the article is to show how the future of business in American needs to use Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory to not only as a motivational tool for their employees but to also survive a business organization. Boe poi nts out that Herzberg’s theory shows how man has the basic need to understand his

Monday, December 9, 2019

Australian Aboriginals

Question: Discuss about theAustralian Aboriginals. Answer: Introduction: Over an extended period of time, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait people in Australia have been undergoing varied social, cultural, economic, and political among other forms of discrimination. Endeavours to thwart these mistreatments have achieved fewer results because statistics still portray how rampant they are. This paper seeks to explore the poor outcomes of health experienced by the indigenous people, the social determinants of their health, an explanation of two of the discussed determinants and finally a discussion of some of the ways that nurses can employ to address the social determinants as a promotion of general health and wellbeing. 1. The poor health outcomes experienced by the indigenous people of Australia are numerous. They range from disability, deaths, high incidence of diseases like cancer, infectious ones, diabetes and those of the cardiovascular system. First off, death is the most unfortunate outcome that bedevils these people. They are way higher likely to die compared to the non-indigenous Australians. Statistics have it that an indigenous boy who is born between 2010 and 2012 is likely to live up to 69 years of age. This finding is ten years below the non-indigenous boy. In addition to that, a girl under similar circumstances likely lives up to 74 years of age, again, ten years below the non-indigenous counterpart. The federal government records indicate that there were 2,914 deaths in the year 2014 among the Australian indigenous people (Gwynne Lincoln, 2016). These deaths are mostly associated with cardiovascular diseases, injuries which include suicide and accidents and cancer. In a study done in 2012, around a quarter of the total indigenous population had at least a disability. This ratio is the highest amongst all the populations in Australia and also among all the age groups. The children of the aboriginals aged between 0 and 14 years have twice as high chances of developing disabilities compared to those of the non-originals. Additionally, the entire population of the indigenous and the Torres Strait people have an elevated rate of needing assistance standing at 63% as compared to the non-indigenous populations at 60%. The disabilities are attributed to oppression, poor health behaviours like smoking and alcoholism, brutality from the police departments and the general discrimination in medical response and attention (Hutt Clarke, 2012). Communicable diseases are rampant in these population, and they influence the health outcome. The notifications on tuberculosis among the indigenous people were 11 times higher than the others between the years 2009 and 2013 ("RANZCP calls for recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders", 2015). Hepatitis is also rampant among the aboriginals with notifications being eight times more in between 2010 and 2014. Haemophilus influenza had 13 times notifications among the aboriginals in 2009 and 2010. The invasive pneumococcal disease was very high among adults with fifty years and above, also in children below four years. The rates were 18 times greater for the aboriginals between 25 and 49 years of age. In 2014, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) also had a high incidence among Indigenous Australians than their nonindigenous counterparts. It was 18 times greater for gonorrhoea and three times for syphilis and chlamydia. For HIV, the diagnosis rates among the aboriginals we re 1.6 times higher than the nonindigenous population (Brown et al., 2014). Heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes, are also the poor outcomes of health among the indigenous people. One-eighth of their total population (about 13 %) gave reports that they at least suffered some form of cardiovascular disease. One in every 28 people has had stroke, heart or another vascular condition. In total, 6% of the total indigenous population have hypertension that is confirmed. Therefore, the figure could be higher with the inclusion of the unconfirmed cases (Brown et al., 2014). The incidences of cancer in this population is very high. Lung cancer was 1.7 times greater, 1.6 times for uterine cancer in 2005 and 2009. It is also reported that 9% of the total indigenous population have diabetes, and 202 deaths were witnessed in 2013 (Stoneman, Atkinson, Davey, Marley, 2014). The mentioned are among the few poor health outcomes experienced by the Aboriginal and the Torres Strait peoples of Australia. 2.The social determinants of health can be categorised as contextual, distal and proximal. Contextual determinants are related to historical, global and regional ideologies, laws and treaties. Among them is colonialism, dispossession and racially motivated legislation and regulations. Since the arrival of the British in 1788, the original inhabitants of Australia have been subjected to a lot of tribulations. Colonisation is one of the social determinants. As a result, the settlers grabbed their arable lands, killed many of their families, ousted their leadership and policies were projected to disadvantage these people completely. In other words, the invasion and settlement marked the inception of the indigenous population's problems that have extended to the contemporary society. Colonialism influenced many systems among them health (Walter, 2016). Dispossession promoted poverty and inaccessibility to appropriate resources. Currently, it has affected the way health care is dispensed to the aboriginals. Legislation like the 1838 policy by the British was turned around to oppress the indigenous people further. Distal determinants are those that are institutionally or legally structured. Some of them are inequality to accessing healthcare, unemployment, increased rates of incarceration and low social and economic status. Unemployment marks poor economic situation and hence the inability to settle health bills. Poor access to health care promotes poor outcomes like death and disability. Increased rates of incarceration encourage overcrowding in prisons and consequent spread of communicable diseases (White, 2014). Finally, the proximal determinants are those that operate at interpersonal and individual levels. They are numerous, for instance, stereotyping, prejudice, associated effects of unhealthy behaviour and other negative attitudes. For example, smoking and alcoholism. They are rampant in aboriginal populations and influence the health outcomes like developing cancer and eventual death. Stereotyping the aboriginals as being unlearned, weak, alcoholic and unimportant has contributed to mistreatment in health institutions thus dimming the health outcomes (Hoy et al., 2012). 3. The two selected social health determinants are racism and social disadvantages. Racism against the Aboriginal and Torres Strait people has consistently been exercised with their description as the most outside group of the entire Australian population. Racism was established in two phases. Phase one was during the arrival of the first British fleet where warfare and forced labour were used. The second wave is the era after a referendum which has been orchestrated till modern days. In both phases, institutional racism was witnessed. Health workers discriminate the indigenous people; educational centres deny them access to wisdom and other mixed forms. For instance, Derbarl Yerrigan, an indigenous medical services centre was fined for spending beyond 8 million dollars of an annual budget. Furthermore, teaching hospitals were sentenced for using extra 80 million on aboriginal people. Racism causes poor health through chronic stress, poor coping. In a 2009 study on 823 schoolers, the impact of racism on wellbeing was rampant among the indigenous population (Hoy et al., 2012). Social disadvantages have also contributed to oppression. Higher rates of unemployment, overcrowding, high levels of incarceration, unhealthy behaviours, poverty, and others have influenced poor health outcomes. For instance, 78% of the total indigenous population live in poorly established houses. 23% of them live in congested areas. In 2011, 19% used to live below poverty line. 13% are more likely to be incarcerated than the others. Poverty is one of the major contributions to poor health outcomes. These social problems have reduced the rates of improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait populations' livelihoods (Heath Jeffery, 2014). 4. Since they operate at the community level, nurses have a higher chance of creating a difference in the influence that the social determinants have on health. Closing the Gap initiative has been spearheaded by the government and non-governmental organisations to improve the indigenous peoples problems. Nurses can promote public awareness on the injustices through the media and inform people that they interact with, like colleagues. Furthermore, they can honestly deliver nursing care to the oppressed group and motivate them. The ability for nurses to innovate means of fighting racism can be useful. Nurses can also participate in the development of guidelines, strategies, and policies that promote equal treatment of the Torres Strait and Aboriginal populations. The process of acquiring knowledge should be constant for a nurse. They should look for historical, research, motivational, law, ethical and other forms of information. These details can help a nurse motivate change. They can also engage in researches that give quality recommendations on health care of the indigenous populations. Attaining cultural competence to help in solving the social problems can be useful for nurses. They can develop on the strengths of the aboriginals. Again, nurses can be steadfast in criticising the governments, individuals, and fellow health workers to treat aboriginals with respect. Above all, the employment of ethical principles like beneficence can promote good life and eliminate the social determinants effects (Chapman, Duggan, Combs, 2012). Adopting the agent of change character is meaningful because many flaws in health care of the Torres Strait and aboriginal people of Australia will be eliminated. Nurses are key in fostering meaningful health inter ventions. In conclusion, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait peoples have had problems of accessing good health care, education, employment and others through social determinants. They are categorised into three, the proximal like prejudice, stereotyping and poor health behaviours, distal like inequality, unemployment, and high incarceration rates and finally contextual, such as colonialism and oppression. Also, nurses can play a significant role in alleviating the effects of these determinants. For instance, through research, advocacy, knowledge, motivation, demonstrations among others. Bibliography Alex, O., Brown, A., Mott, K., Brown, K., Lawson, T., Jennings, G. (2014). O005 Essential Service Standards for Equitable National Cardiovascular CarE for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People An Exemplar Approach to Closing the Gap. Global Heart,9(1), e2. Chapman, R., Duggan, R., Combs, S. (2012). Promoting Change and Improving Health by Enhancing Nurses' and Midwives' Knowledge, Ability and Confidence to Conduct Research through a Clinical Scholar Program in Western Australia. ISRN Nursing,2011, 1-9. Gwynne, K. Lincoln, M. (2016). Developing the rural health workforce to improve Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health outcomes: a systematic review.Aust. Health Review. Heath Jeffery, R. (2014). Infectious, social and environmental determinants of blindness in adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and other Australian populations. Clinical Experimental Ophthalmology,43(4), 392-394. Hoy, W., Davey, R., Sharma, S., Hoy, P., Smith, J., Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, S. (2012).Chronic disease profiles in remote Aboriginal settings and implications for health service planning. Hutt, S. Clarke, A. (2012). Promoting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Support in Out-of-Home Care. Children Australia,37(02), 76-79. Molloy, L. Grootjans, J. (2014). The Suggestions of Frantz Fanon and Culturally Safe Practices for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in Australia. Issues In Mental Health Nursing,35(3), 207-211. Parker, R. (2014). Dementia in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.Med J Aust,200(8), 435-436. RANZCP calls for recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. (2015).Australasian Psychiatry,23(2), 195-195. Stoneman, A., Atkinson, D., Davey, M., Marley, J. (2014). Quality improvement in practice: improving diabetes care and patient outcomes in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. BMC Health Services Research,14(1). Walter, M. (2016). Social Exclusion/Inclusion for Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People.SI,4(1), 68. Ward, J., Goller, J., Ali, H., Bowring, A., Couzos, S., Saunders, M. et al. (2014). Chlamydia among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people attending sexual health services, general practices and Aboriginal community controlled health services. BMC Health Services Research,14(1). White, R. (2014). Indigenous Young People and Hyperincarceration in Australia.Youth Justice,15(3), 256-270. Woollacott, A. (2015). A Radical's Career: Responsible government, settler colonialism, and Indigenous dispossession. Journal Of Colonialism And Colonial History,16(2).

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Was The Bombing Of Hiroshima Wrong Essays - Japan,

Was The Bombing Of Hiroshima Wrong? Michael Axt Mrs. Kwon/ Mrs. Crosby World Literature/ World History II May 3, 2000 Was the Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Wrong? On the morning of August 6, 1945, the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. One newspaper described the destruction as, ?Images of swirling fire, angry impressions of red and black, with angular figures turning to skeletons, primitive figures writhing in fury of ever-expanding death?(Stone 18). Three days later, the U.S. dropped another atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki. Together these events marked the ending of World War II, and the downfall of Japan. Many people believe the United States made the right decision in dropping the atomic bombs on Japan. Even to this day there is a seemingly never-ending debate on whether this was the right decision. The United States should not have dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki because both sides knew Japan was defeated before the bombs were dropped, the United States did not clarify the terms of the Potsdam Proclamation which would have led to Japan's surrender, and the bombs also caused unnecessary civilian casualties. The United States should not have dropped the bombs because Japan was already defeated, and both sides knew it. The air and sea blockade along with strategic bombing were two reasons that Japan was already defeated. The air and sea blockade was cutting off the Japanese supplies and important goods, while strategic bombing was devastating their many cities and populated areas. On July 8th, one month and two days before the first bomb was dropped, the Combined Intelligence Committee said that Japan was beginning to realize that they were defeated due to the air and sea blockade which was slowly cutting off their food and would eventually starve them to the point of surrender. On June 18, President Truman was informed that the air and sea power had already ?greatly reduced movement of Japanese shipping south of Korea, and that it should in the next few months cut it to a trickle, if not choke it off entirely?(A Guide To Gar Alperovitz's The Decision To Use The Atomic Bomb Part IV 6). Th e mass devastation of strategic bombing caused millions of the Japanese to lose their homes and had destroyed 25% to 50% of the densely populated areas of Japan's most important cities. The U.S. strategic bombing survey concluded that, ?In all probability, prior to November 1st, 1945, Japan would have surrendered even if the bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated? (Alperovitz 645). The war department concluded that the Japanese leaders had already decided to surrender and were only looking for a good reason with which to convince the Die Hard Army Group that Japan had lost the war. Many people thought that if the Russians entered the war, the Japanese would quickly surrender. A meeting at the Japanese Supreme Counsel for the Direction of War, held on May 11, came to the conclusion that, ?It is clear that if the Soviets enter the war that Japan would be defeated, therefore Japan must do everything in their power to keep Russia out of the war?(A Guide To Gar Alperovitz's The Decision To Use The Atomic Bomb Part I 4). A recent study by the Joint Intelligence Committee shows that the Japanese political leaders recognized defeat and decided to surrender long before the bomb, but they were unable to convince the Die Hard Army Group that Japan had lost the war and must surrender. Another document from the Joint Intelligence Committee said that Russia's entry into the war in August would and should have convinced the Japanese military leaders that they had no other choice but to surrender. After Joseph Stalin confirmed his entry into the war, President Truman wrote in his diary, ?Most of the big points are settled. He'll be in the Jap war on August 15. Fini Japs when that comes about?(A Guide To Gar Alperovitz's The Decision To Use The Atomic Bomb Part III 3). This statement shows the confidence of the Americans regarding the easy defeat of the Japanese. It also makes it clear that Russia's involvement

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The 4 Different Types of Financial Aid Expert Guide

The 4 Different Types of Financial Aid Expert Guide SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips There are so many different types of financial aid out there, with some serving you better than others. This guide will demystify everything you need to know about the types of aid available to students. I’ll start with the various options available to you and include examples that you can check out for yourself. Then, I’ll tell you exactly where and how you can get your hands on this financial aid money. Finally, I’ll explain which types of aid you should take advantage of - and which types you should stay away from. Let's get started! What Are the Different Types of Financial Aid? Tackling financial aid can be overwhelming, but you might be relieved to know that there are only a few different types of aid out there. Once you get the basic info on each category of aid, you’ll be much better informed when it comes to getting the most (and the best) funding. The main differentiating factors between each aid category are: How you get the money Why you get the money Whether you have to pay the money back Here are the main aid types you should know about before you start looking for funding for college: Grants Grants are monetary awards that are typically based on financial need. If you receive a grant, you don’t have to repay the money at any point. Example: Pell Grant Loans Loans are sums of money that you borrow and then pay back on a monthly basis after you graduate. In addition to the original amount that you borrow (the principle), you’ll also be responsible for paying back an extra percentage of the loan amount (interest). Examples: Direct loans (subsidized and unsubsidized), Stafford loan, Perkins loan, Private loan Scholarships Scholarships are monetary awards similar to grants - you don’t have to pay them back at any point. Unlike grants, however; they’re often based on factors other than financial need, although need may be taken into account. Ultimately, scholarship eligibility can be based on almost anything depending on the goals of the person or entity that’s funding the scholarship. To give you some examples, here are some student characteristics that many scholarship programs tend to look for in their applicants: Strong academic records Volunteer experience Particular ethnic background Artistic skill Sports prowess Entrepreneurial interests Political ambitions Career goals Some combination of the above Examples: Gates Millennium, McDonald’s, Coca-Cola, Tylenol, Florida Bright Futures, Hispanic Scholarship Fund, Minority scholarships Work-Study A work-study award is a type of need-based â€Å"self-help† financial aid in the form of a wage subsidy. Ultimately, it’s meant to help students get jobs (especially on campus) because the subsidy makes the students less expensive for certain employers to hire. Some student jobs only hire people who have work-study awards. The work-study award pays for part of your hourly salary, and your employer pays the rest. You only â€Å"get† the money if you get a student job, and you don’t get any extra funding on top of your salary. The average work-study award is about $1,500, but the annual maximum tops out at $7,000. Check out our guide to the federal work study program to learn more. A student job might not be the most exciting way to get financial aid, but it can come with some perks. What Are the Most Important Sources of Financial Aid? Although there are only a few types of aid, funding for school can come from a bunch of different sources. The way you go about getting aid depends, of course, on where the money’s coming from. The main sources of student aid in the US are the federal government, state governments, the schools themselves, private organizations, and banks. Here, I’ll break down how you’d go about getting aid funding from each of these sources. Federal Financial Aid Types of aid given:Grants, loans, and work-study Aid eligibilitycriteria:There are quite a few eligibility criteria when it comes to accessing federal student aid. Although they may seem complicated, most of them aren’t hard to meet - the big things are that you have to have a high school diploma or GED, and you have to be accepted to a degree or certificate program. To make sure you meet all the necessary eligibility criteria, read our comprehensive guide to getting federal financial aid. How to apply:You apply for federal aid with theFree Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA. You only have to submit this one application in order to be considered for any and all forms of federal aid. You can even estimate your aid eligibility before you submit your FAFSA if you’re interested in knowing beforehand how much (and what types) of aid you’re likely to be awarded by using the FAFSA4caster. Examples: Pell Grant, federal loans State Financial Aid Different states have their own protocols, budgets, and eligibility criteria when it comes to state-based financial aid. Some states may use the FAFSA whereas others may have their own processes for determining aid eligibility (like Florida). You'll have to do your own research on your state of residency. Read moreabout state financial aid optionshere. Aid From Your School Types of aid given: Primarily grants and scholarships, sometimes loans Aid eligibility criteria:Some schools offer only need-based financial aid in the form of grants. If you get into the school, then you’re automatically eligible for need-based aid as determined by the school’s financial aid policies. The most generousfinancial aid policies are often based solely on need. Some schools offer need-based and merit-based financial aid. Eligibility criteria for merit-based scholarships might depend on your GPA, standardized test scores, or sports performance. How to apply:Many schools use the FAFSA to determine eligibility for need-based financial aid. Schools automatically get your FAFSA info if you list them on your application. Your college applications will also often serve as an automatic scholarship application - the admissions or financial aid office will offer scholarships to particularly competitive students in order to persuade them to attend that school. Some school-based scholarships have separate applications, however. I’d encourage you to check out theschool’s financial aid website (or contact theirfinancial aid officer) if you have questions about additional scholarship opportunities that might be available. Aid FromPrivate Organizations or Nonprofits Types of aid given: Primarily scholarships and grants Aid eligibility criteria:Eligibility criteria varies widely based on the type of student that each scholarship or grant program is targeting. The most common criteria centers around US citizenship and academic performance, but check out the scholarships listed earlierfor more examples. How to apply:There are some umbrella organizations where one application will allow you to beconsidered for multiple scholarships (e.g. the Hispanic Scholarship Fund). Most of the time, though, you have to submit a separate application for each scholarship program that you’re interested in. Often there’s overlap in what information scholarship applications ask for, so you may be able to recycle parts of your applications (like essays, for example). Examples:Check out our lists of top scholarships for high school juniors and seniors Aid From Banks and Financial Institutions Types of aid given:This is where you go if you need access to private loans Aid eligibility criteria:This will vary based on which institution you go to and how much money you’re looking to take out. Basically, you'll have to show that you’re responsible and reliable so that banks trust that you’ll pay themoney back. You can do this with a good credit history. The problem is that most young people don’t really have a credit history, which means that most students who want to take out private loans need someone else (usually a parent) with good credit to cosign on the loan. How to apply:You’d have to work directly with a bank to apply forthe student loans you hope to take out. It involves submitting personal and financial information to the financial institution. For more information, check out our step-by-step guide to getting a student loan. What Are the Best Types of Financial Aid? What Are the Worst? Although all of the above forms of financial aid can help you pay for school, not all of them come with the same perks and benefits. There are some types of aid that’ll serve you better in the long run. I’ve organized categories of aid into tiers, with Tier 1 being the most desirable and Tier 3 being the least desirable. You should pursue aid in this order - seek out Tier 1 aid first before filling any gaps with Tier 2 and 3. Think of your financial aid options like tiers on a really delicious cake: you shouldn't start cutting just anywhere! Tier 1: Grants and Scholarships Grants and scholarships are the most desirable forms of financial aid because they come in the form of free money, often with no strings attached. Some grants and scholarships are applied right to your bill - you often see this with federal and school-based aid. When this happens you don't actually see the money - you just see a lower (or even non-existent) bill. Other grants and scholarships are given directly to you. This means you have more freedom with how the money's spent, but it also means you haveto be responsible with money management. Ultimately, it's best to apply grant and scholarship money to academic bills first before using funds to pay for other things. Tier 2: Federal Loans and Federal Work Study Tier 2 offers some solid options for students and families who still need to cover costs after looking into grants and scholarships. These options don’t come in the form of â€Å"free† money, but that doesn’t mean they don’t come with some benefits. Federal Loans You have to pay federal loansback, so they’re obviously not as desirable as grants or scholarships. That being said, federal loans can come with perks that you won’t find with any other borrowing options. Many federal loan options come with competitive interest rates, lengthygrace periods, options for forgiveness or cancellation, and flexible repayment plans. If you have to borrow money, borrow federal loans first before turning to any private lenders. Work Study With a work study award, you don’t have to borrow any money at all. You do, however, have to get a job in order to see any cash. The good news is that the money you earn is yours to spend or save as you see fit. Check out our guide to the federal work study program to learn more. Tier 3: Private Loans You should only look into private loans if you can’t cover your expenses after getting as much Tier 1 and Tier 2 money as possible. You can borrow responsibly with private loans, but borrowing terms tend to be less favorable than what you’d see with federal loans. First, it'spretty much necessary to have a cosigner on a private loan if you don’t have a credit history - this means that someone else is on the hook for your debt if you're unable to pay back what you borrow. They don't comewithoptions for loan cancellation or forgiveness. Finally,private loans tend to have higher interest rates than federal loans because they're not subsidized. The bottom line: you ending up paying more in the long run with private loans than with other forms of financial aid. Final Thoughts: Paying for College Responsibly The average sticker price for a college education is pretty high these days - too high for the typical student to take on by herself. As a result, most US college students relies heavily on financial aid to help fund their education. Sometimes, it’s a bit too easy to take out large amounts of student loans (especially private loans) to cover high college expenses. Although this investment can pay off in the long run for some students, student loans can turn into a frustrating burden for many others. It’s important to take a long-term perspective when considering student loan options. For example, you may want to ask yourselfthe following: How much do you anticipate making after graduation, given your career goals? How much would your total monthly payment (principle + interest) be for all your loans after you graduate? Could you afford to make this monthly payment after covering all anticipated living expenses? Before you take on large student loans, talk to potential cosigners, parents, and guardians. Finally, it would be wise to get the perspective of a trusted college counselor orfinancial advisor before committing to paying back large sums of money. People with this type of experience may be able to point you in the rightdirection when it comes to paying for your education. "Paying for college responsibly" is code for "not taking out more loans than you can handle." What's Next? Now that you've covered the basics, you can start thinking strategically about how to budget for a college education. You might want to begin by learning about how, when, and why to save for college. After that, you should check out our complete guide to covering your college expenses. Knowing how to apply for financial aid is an important part of covering college expenses, of course. Maybe you have more complicated challenges ahead of you. If so, you might want to read more about how to pay for college without parents' help andhow to pay for college without loans. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Saturday, November 23, 2019

French Expressions Using Monter

French Expressions Using Monter The French verb monter literally means to go up and is also used in many idiomatic expressions. Learn how to be promoted, rise gently, turn up the volume, and more with this list of expressions with monter. Possible Meanings of Monter to go upto assembleto climb up/intoto editto mountto organize, set upto put upto riseto stageto take upto turn upto well up Expressions with Monter monter to go up to visit / work in (a city)monter bicycletteto cycle up; to ride a bikemonter bord (dun navire)to go on board a shipmonter chevalto get on a horse; to ride a horsemonter / jusquto come up tomonter /dans sa chambreto go up to ones roommonter là ©tageto go upstairsmonter piedto walk upmonter aux arbresto climb treesmonter dans lestime de quelquunto rise in someones estimationmonter dans un avionto board a planemonter dans un trainto board a trainmonter des maillesto cast on stitchesmonter en courantto run upmonter en flà ¨cheto soar (literally and figuratively)monter en gradeto be promotedmonter en lacetsto wind upwardsmonter en parallà ¨leto connect in parallelmonter en pente douceto rise gentlymonter en sà ©rieto connect in seriesmonter en titubantto stagger upmonter en trainto go up by trainmonter en voitureto drive up; to get into a carmonter le bourrichon quelquun (informal)to put ideas in someones headmonter le coup quelquun (fam)to take someone for a ridemonter lescalierto go up the stairsmonter la gamme (music)to go up the scalemonter la gardeto go/be on guardmonter le sonto turn the volume upmonter la tà ªte quelquunto get someone worked upmonter par lascenseurto take the elevator upmonter prà ©venir quelquunto go up and tell someonemonter quelque chose en à ©pingleto blow something all out of proportionmonter quelquun contre quelquunto set someone against someonemonter voir quelquunto go up and see someonemonter surto climb up onmonter sur le trà ´neto ascend to the thronemonter sur un arbreto climb a treemonter sur une bicycletteto get on a bicyclemonter sur une collineto climb a hillmonter sur une à ©chelleto climb a laddermonter un chevalto ride a horsemonter une cà ´teto go up a hillmonter un coupto plan a jobmonter une histoire pour dà ©shonorer quelquunto invent a scandal to ruin someones nameÇa fait monter les prix. It makes prices go up.Cest lartiste qui monte.Hes an up-and-coming artist.Cest lhomme qui monte.Hes on the way up (to fame).Cest une histoire montà ©e de toutes pià ¨ces.Its a complete fabrication.à ªtre montà © contreto be dead set againstfaire monter des blancs en neigeto beat egg whites into stiff peaksfaire monter quelquunto tell someone (e.g., a guest) to come upfaire monter ses valisesto have ones luggage taken upJe monte la garde (sign)Beware of dogLa moutarde me monte au nez.Im losing my monterto come to, amount tose monter le bourrichon (informal)to get all worked upse monter la tà ªte (pour un rien)to get all worked up (over nothing)Monter conjugations

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Reflection on team work asignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Reflection on team work asignment - Essay Example Earlier this semester we prepared a report discussing management and leadership styles of different organizations. It was identified that companies such as Proctor and Gamble has acquired significant position in the market on the basis of their profound leadership whereas on the other hand Royal bank of Scotland has undergone serious challenges due to their poor management. The report further discussed management and leadership approaches considering four other organizations. Preparation and presentation of the report was solely based on team work and group effectiveness. Here, we not only learned different theories related to leadership and management rather we also comprehended unique human behaviors in work place setting. My group comprised of four individuals; Alex, Ashley, Helena and Stella. All the activities and different presentation tasks were divided among team members. The team effectiveness and successful presentation was largely dependent upon clear communication and und erstanding among individuals. In order to discuss theories and models about team work it is important to first understand the fundamental concept of teams. Every individual working in a team is actually interdependent with respect to different tasks. Team members have to share the responsibility of positive or negative outcomes (Halverson, 2008). Moreover, the entire team must show itself as an integral social entity. Members should be able to manage all their conflicts and issues across the boundaries of an organization or an educational institution. Groups and teams have the basic difference of connection, for instance, teams are more connected whereas group members usually have loose connections (Halverson, 2008). Humans have highly dynamic personalities. They tend to act differently in particular workplace situations. Researchers argue that work place human behavior is specifically determined by analyzing multiple factors. Although work motivation,

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Evangelism and Colonialization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Evangelism and Colonialization - Essay Example Pedro Cabral is one of the most renowned explorers of the world for his discovery of Brazil in 1500. In 1549, the first governor general of Brazil was Tome de Sousa. During his period as governor general, there was an increase in evangelism in Brazil. Pedro Cabral explores the coast of Brazil under the orders from the King of Portugal (Beidelman, 73). The Portuguese signed the Treaty of Tordesillas that meant there was a division between Christians and non-Christians outside of Europe. The Jesuit missionaries spread Christianity to Brazil Indians. The missionaries clash with adventurers in Brazil with the main aim of capturing Indian and looking for minerals. The Jesuit missionaries play an important role in the spread of evangelism in Brazil and its surrounding areas (Rivera, PagaÃŒ n & Justo, 54). The Portuguese individuals turned to slavery to solve their labor problems. The presence of slaves led to the development of sugar industries in North East of the country. Brazil became the largest producer of sugar because the conditions in the country were favorable. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Spain and Portugal became the new states that promoted colonization in the world. The developed of skills to travel in the ocean meant that they could travel around the world in search of colonies. The discovery of ocean skills the world the Portuguese China trade between the 1514 and 1550 (Rivera, PagaÃŒ n & Justo, 54). Jorge Alvares was the first European Explorer to reach Asia. His arrival in China boosted trade within the region.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Why Japan attack Pearl Harbor Essay Example for Free

Why Japan attack Pearl Harbor Essay Japan was at war with China. Despite being a military superpower, their war with China was using up their resources. During that time, most of their resources especially oil were coming from the US. The US did not approve of Japanese aggression in China and they declared an embargo on Japan. This means they would stop supplying Japan with raw materials. So where would Japan get their resources to continue the war now? The Japanese High Command carefully discussed this and came up with the conclusion that the Dutch East Indies would be the best place to gain resources. But they knew that an attack on the Dutch East Indies would probably bring the US into the war. So they had to find a way to prevent the US from fighting with them until they conquered the Dutch East Indies. Thats when they planned Pearl Harbor. The goal of Pearl Harbor was to disable the American fleet for a few months to give them enough time to conquer the Dutch East Indies and to absorb its resources to finance their war in China and the US once the US navy was rebuilt. The Japanese were tired of negotiations with the United States. They wanted to continue their expansion within Asia but the United States had placed an extremely restrictive embargo on Japan in the hopes of curbing Japans aggression. Negotiations to solve their differences hadnt been going well. Rather than giving in to U.S. demands, the Japanese decided to launch a surprise attack against the United States in an attempt to destroy the United States naval power even before an official announcement of war was given. The Japanese practiced and prepared carefully for their attack on Pearl Harbor. They knew their plan was extremely risky. The probability of success depended heavily on complete surprise. On November 26, 1941, the Japanese attack force, led by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, left Etorofu Island in the Kurils (located northeast of Japan) and began its 3,000-mile journey across the Pacific Ocean. Sneaking six aircraft carriers, nine destroyers, two battleships, two heavy cruisers, one light cruiser, and three submarines across the Pacific Ocean was not an easy task. Worried that they might be spotted by another ship, the Japanese attack force continually zig-zagged and avoided major shipping lines. After a week and a half at sea, the attack force made it safely to its destination, about 230 miles north of  the Hawaiian island of Oahu. On the morning of December 7, 1941, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor began. At 6:00 a.m., the Japanese aircraft carriers began launching their planes amid rough sea. In total, 183 Japanese aircraft took to the air as part of the first wave of the attack on Pearl Harbor. At 7:15 a.m., the Japanese aircraft carriers, plagued by even rougher seas, launched 167 additional planes to participate in the second wave of the attack on Pearl Harbor. The first wave of Japanese planes reached the U.S. Naval Station at Pearl Harbor (located on the south side of the Hawaiian island of Oahu) at 7:55 a.m. on December 7, 1941. Just before the first bombs dropped on Pearl Harbor, Commander Mitsuo Fuchida, leader of the air attack, called out, Tora! Tora! Tora! (Tiger! Tiger! Tiger!), a coded message which told the entire Japanese navy that they had caught the Americans totally by surprise.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

time travel Essay -- essays research papers

For many years time travel was the stuff of science fiction. This was all just part of the world’s imagination until recently. Scientists now believe that the current laws of physics allow us to travel though time. They believe that we can now travel back to see our founding fathers sign the declaration of independence. We could travel to 2999 to witness the birth of the next new millennium. Such travel would require a machine capable of withstanding great pressures and incredible amounts of speed. The act of actually traveling though time is for the most part, agreed upon, but the implications of such travel is not so decided upon. Many different theorists have different views of what could happen and some go, as far as to say that if we did travel to the past, we would end up in a different universe that is a replica of this one. One of the most basic concepts is that of Dilation, a stretching of something. Some scientists believe that the main gateway to the past or future is a wormhole. Einstein’s general relativity theory explains about universal constants, this is important to understand the concepts of travel at light speed. Traveling to the past could create problems if someone tried to change something. This is a paradox. A few of these paradoxes are explained through the use of quantum mechanics. Sailing though the cosmos at the speed of light with no time passing us by, moving throughout time to witness the ancient Egyptians create their masterpieces. This is an exciting concept that we could actually formulate and make happen. Before the time of Einstein, Newton and other great investigators thought of space as an infinite expanse in which all things exist (Hewitt 213). We are in space and we live in it along with all of the planets and stars. It was never clear if the universe exists in space or space exists in the universe. Dose space exists outside the universe or only within the bounds of it. The similar question, does the universe exist only in time or does time only exist in the universe? Was there time before the universe, and will there be time after it ceases to exist? â€Å"Einstein’s answer to this is that time and space only exist within the universe. There is no time or space ‘outside.’(Hewitt 213)† Einstein said that space and time are two separate parts of a whole called space-time (Hewitt 213). To understand this, consider our presen... ... all his work. His younger self could reproduce the paintings and profoundly and irrevocably affecting the future of art. This would involve no creative energy by the â€Å"inventor.† The reproductions would exist because they are copies from the original and the originals exist because they are copies of the reproductions. No creative energy would ever have to be put forth to create these masterpieces. Because of the chronology principal time travel, by some, has been ruled out. The cosmos await us, and the history of our world is at our fingertips. Would we use this great power for good, bad, and wealth? All we have to do is get in our spaceship, set sail for the nearest wormhole, and hope for a little luck, and we can witness things only told in stories. Only the traveler can decided what he or she wishes to go back for. The theories today state that traveling through time is possible, however they do not say what could be the repercussions of our actions. This great frontier awaits us; we have the knowledge, and are slowly but surly developing the technology. Only time will tell when time itself no longer rules our lives as one of the chief amendments of the universal constitution.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Killings by Andre Dubus Essay

â€Å"Killings† by Andre Dubus is a short story about a father who seeks out vengeance for the murder of his twenty-one year old son only to learn that revenge will only make things worse. The father, Matt Fowler, is haunted by the tragedy that has befallen his youngest son. Retribution is a common human desire because people feel that it offers the truest form of justice; however, this action is against the law of the land and is thought of as reckless to pursue. The author uses foreshadowing, imagery, and dialogue to illustrate a tone of prudence when thinking of taking vengeance into one’s own hand. In the story the literary element of foreshadowing is used. The desire to get even is an emotion that is felt by all people and is not biased as to who feels it. That desire is displayed at the beginning of the story. This is shown when the author writes, â€Å"Matt’s older son, Steve, turned to him as the family left the grave and walked between their friends, and said: ‘I should kill him’† (1203). This ominous statement shows how the feeling of revenge causes the character to not think of the consequences when pursuing vengeance for what is thought of as true justice. The writer further establishes how the feeling of retribution clouds cautious thinking through foreshadowing when he writes, â€Å"‘I’ve got a . 38 I’ve had for years, I take it to the store now†¦She knows I started carrying it after the first time she saw him in town. She knows it’s in case I see him and there’s some kind of situation. ’† (1204). This indicates that not only is revenge to be sought out but also the means by which Matt Fowler plans to exact his vengeance without any thought of consequence. The author’s use of imagery creates a picture of how the father’s vengeance for his son’s murder takes place when Matt waits on the murderer to get off of work so that he can take the killer and his car back to the killer’s house. The author describes the scene with vivid detail when he writes, â€Å"†¦he stopped and aimed over the hood at Strout’s blue shirt ten feet away†¦They drove across the empty front lot and onto the road. Willis’s headlights shining into the car; then back through the town, the sea wall left hiding the beach, though far out Matt could see the ocean; he uncocked the revolver: on the right were the places, most with their neon signs off, that did so much business in summer†¦the street itself empty of traffic†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (1209). The description of the abduction of the killer creates a mental picture to the reader of how the father planned to obtain the murderer and exact his revenge. The use of magery is also evident when the author describes the preparations taken for getting even when the author writes, â€Å"Beyond the marsh they drove through woods, Matt thinking now of the hole he and Willis dug last Sunday afternoon†¦as they dug into the soft earth on the knoll they had chosen because elms and maples sheltered it† (1210). The prose writer not only creates a picture of how the father obtains the murder to exact retaliation but also where the killer would be disposed of. The author uses imagery to show that the character had plenty of opportunities to have second thoughts of seeking vengeance but used no caution and thought only of revenge. The author’s use of dialogue enhances the tone of caution when thinking of taking vengeance outside of the legal system. This is apparent in the father’s reply to the murderer when the author writes, â€Å"‘You’re not going to jail’† (1212). Matt Fowler’s response to the killer not going to jail through dialogue shows that he has no intentions of letting the justice system handle Strout’s punishment. The author further reinforces the tone through dialogue when he show’s the father’s distaste with the legal system. This is illustrated when the scribe writes, â€Å"‘I’ll do twenty years, Mr. Fowler; at least. I’ll be forty-six years old. ’ ‘That’s nine years younger than I am,’ Matt said†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (1214). The father’s response gives the reader insight to Matt’s thoughts of true justice and how no caution was used when pursuing this course of action. In conclusion, the author uses foreshadowing, imagery, and dialogue to set a tone of caution when thinking about taking vengeance outside of the legal system. This desire for reprisal is all too common, especially to those who have been victimized, to feel that if one wrong is committed that another wrong will cancel it out. Revenge is ill advised by most as people who say two wrongs don’t make a right and the memories will never fade. The story, â€Å"Killings† by Andre Dubus, illustrates how a father seeks out revenge for the murder of his twenty-one year old son and takes matters into his own hands only to discover that revenge only makes matters in his life worse.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Chemistry Bonding Notes and Lewis Dot Structures

CChemistry Exam #2 Study Guide (10/07/12) I. Bonding a. Ionic Bonding i. Electrons are transferred ii. Ions are held together by electrostatic force b. Covalent Bonding iii. Electrons are somehow shared iv. Electrons are attracted to nuclei (shared) II. Electronegativity c. The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself d. Measured on Pauling Scale e. Most electronegative: Fluorine. Then Oxygen. f. Depending on electronegativity of X and Y, there are 3 possibilities: v. X and Y have identical electronegativities (Non Polar) vi.X and Y have dissimilar electronegativities (Polar)- Y is slightly negative; has greater control than slightly positive X vii. X and Y have very different electronegativities (Ionic)- Y is negative; has full control g. Polar Covalent viii. Size depends on electronegative difference ix. Arrow points to where electrons are dragged to x. Dipole Moment measured in Debyes (D) 1. [Dipole Momenti = Q*r] xi. Possesses some ionic character 2. The bigger the difference†¦ a. The more polar the bond b. The bigger the dipole c. The more ionic in character III.Electron Configuration for Ions h. Atom forms an ion with electron configuration of the closest noble gas xii. True for representative S and P block xiii. Atom will lose up to three or gain up to three electrons 3. For D-block elements d. Outer S electrons lost before outer D electrons 4. For P-block elements e. Outer P lost before the outer S electrons, which are lost before outer D IV. Ionic Radii i. Size descriptions based on charge xiv. Positive ions are always smaller than the parent atom xv. Negative ions are always larger than the parent atom j.Periodic trend xvi. Ionic radii increase within a column going from top to bottom xvii. Ionic radii decrease within a row going from left to right V. Isoelectronic Ions k. Have the same number of electrons l. Radius decreases as atomic number increases VI. Compounds m. Ionic xviii. High Melting Point and Boiling Poin t (brittle solids) xix. Soluble in polar solvents like water xx. Insoluble in nonpolar solvents like Hexane xxi. Metal and Nonmetal xxii. Any compound that conducts electric current when melted n. Covalent xiii. Low Melting Point and Boiling Point (solid/liquid/gas) xxiv. Insoluble in polar solvents (exception: Sugar! ) xxv. Soluble in nonpolar solvents xxvi. Nonmetal and Nonmetal o. Crystals xxvii. All group 1 Alkali metals and Group 7 Halogens make crystals xxviii. Sublimation: solid to a gas! VII. Lattice Energy p. Measure of how strongly ions interact together (compares sizes of ions) xxix. enthalpy of formation of the ionic compound from gaseous ions and as such is invariably exothermic xxx. he energy required to completely separate one mole of a solid ionic compound into gaseous ionic constituents q. Goes to closer energy (emits energy as heat)- always more negative number r. (+) = endothermic (absorbing energy) s. (-) = exothermic (releasing energy) t. Energy is released! xxx i. =K[(Q1Q2)/(r)] xxxii. Large for small â€Å"r† (average distance between ions)- higher boiling point, more stable, difficult to separate, but still fragile xxxiii. Large â€Å"Q†- highly charged xxxiv. Lattice energy goes down in same group VIII.Bond Order u. Triple Bond (as bond energy increases, bond length decreases! ) xxxv. Highest Bond Order xxxvi. Strongest xxxvii. Shortest v. Double Bond w. Single Bond xxxviii. Weakest xxxix. Longest xl. Lowest Bond Order IX. Resonance x. More than one Lewis Dot Structure can be drawn for the same arrangement (skeleton) of atoms. Only the bonds differ! y. True structure is a ‘hybrid’ or ‘blend’ of possible resonance structures z. Not double or single bonds, but all bonds with order 1. 3333 {. Shuffling of electrons |. Formal Charge li. Look at one atom at a time (sum of Formal Charge must add up to over all charge of structure) xlii. (# of valance e- on free atom) – [(# of lone pair e-) + (# o f bonds)] X. Octet Rule Violators }. Always OBEY the octet rule: B, C, O, N, and F. ~. 5 EXCEPTIONS we should know: xliii. ________________________ . Radical- odd number of electrons . Biradical- EVEN number of electrons – has TWO UNPAIRED electrons (O2) . Groups 5-8 (3rd row and lower can have more than 8 valance) XI. VSEPR Theory . â€Å"Valance Shell Electron Pair Repulsion† Bonds and lone pairs repel (more lone pairs= squeezed) . Determines the likely shape of a molecule . Does not describe how the bonding occurs . Steps: xliv. Draw Lewis Dot Structure xlv. Count RHED (Region of High Electron Density) xlvi. Predict electronic geometry (arrangement of RHED) xlvii. Determine molecular geometry xlviii. Are bonds polar? xlix. Is the molecule polar? . If dipoles cancel out (the same), it is non polar! . Doesn’t matter about net dipole direction, it will be polar! . Pairs of diploes not arranged to cancel (different sizes)

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Grade 11 IPT Term 1 2004 essays

Grade 11 IPT Term 1 2004 essays Artificial Intelligence Minor Project (AI 1) The topic I chose for my system is European flags. I chose this topic because I will try to help people know what European flags are which. In my system there will be a series of questions asked to the user to help classify different flags. Some limitations Ive made are that I have only chosen flags for the most popular and well known countries. To use my system effectively you answer the questions asked to the best of your ability and when you have answered all the questions then you should reach a conclusion. That conclusion will be the name and picture of your flag. I think that my expert system is fairly well done. It helps the user classify the different types of European flags. It also gives a little insight to the country by giving it a brief overview. I believe that my system is extremely helpful to someone trying to find different flag names that are in Europe. If I were to rate my system out of ten, I would rate it 6/10. Some of the weak points in my expert system is that there are so many European flags and I only chose a small quantity of them. This means that there are a lot of flags left out and there is a fair possibility that people want to know those certain flags. Some of the future enhancements are increasing the amount of conclusions in the memory bank. This means increasing the number of flags. I would also if I had plenty of spare time do the world flags and then help other people know all the world flags. ...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Intern Bible Dos and Donts in the Workplace

The Intern Bible Dos and Donts in the Workplace You may be reading this moments before your first day as an intern and are nervously wondering, â€Å"What exactly is proper intern etiquette?† First off, congrats on the internship! You must have done something right to land the position. Now, just try not to mess it up. Just kidding. Actually, it’s important to remember that employers create internship programs as an opportunity for learning. Along the way, mistakes are going to be made and that’s not a bad thing – as long as you learn from them. In an effort to lessen your stress and increase your chance for success, here’s some do’s and don’ts to help you navigate the murky waters of interning.Do seek feedbackIt is crucial for an intern to seek feedback from their supervisor. It demonstrates that you are coachable. Seeking feedback takes all of the guesswork out of how so you can â€Å"wow† your boss. Feedback allows you to improve and learn how you can add value. As an inte rn, seeking feedback will communicate to your boss that you are highly self-aware and motivated to improve.Do clarify expectationsClarifying expectations is crucial as an intern. Telling the hiring team exactly what you want out of the internship is going to ensure that you are not coming to a job every day that you hate. No boss intentionally makes an intern’s job miserable. The majority of the time an unfulfilling internship is a result of individuals not clarifying exactly what they want out of the job. If you want to get better at presentations, tell your boss that. They want to teach you about what you want to learn and more.Don’t gossipNot only is gossiping at work unprofessional, but it also creates a toxic environment.   Gossiping damages trust and will have your coworkers hesitant to share things with you. As an intern, you may hear your manager gossiping about others in the office, but that does not warrant you to join in. Avoid joining in on gossip, and en sure you are doing everything in your power to avoid being the target of gossip. Dressing appropriate, not oversharing, and being mindful of what you post on social media are all effective ways to avoid being the topic of workplace gossip.Don’t be dependentNo supervisor wants to apprehensively hand their intern a pile of work, worrying if it will actually get done or not. In the workplace today, task-oriented jobs are seizing to exist – and so are bosses who micromanage. Be confident in your abilities to complete a task, large or small. Use this time as an intern to be independent.Don’t neglect networkingOffering to take your other fellow interns to lunch during the week is a nice gesture, but not the key to getting yourself a full-time offer once your internship is up. It’s crucial, as an intern, to network with the other full-time employees at the office. This could be your direct boss or other members of the full-time team. However, this does not mean to just have surface level relationships with a variety of people. The most useful networks are those with strong ties. The more someone knows you and believes in you, the more  likely they will be to vouch for you, think of you first when an opportunity opens, and be a reference to add to your resume.  About the Author:Margaret Foley is a senior at Texas Christian University, where she is majoring in Communications Studies and minoring in English and Graphic Design. She is currently interning at Varghese Summersett, a criminal defense law firm in Fort Worth, Texas.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Ethics Perspective in Applied Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Ethics Perspective in Applied Leadership - Essay Example The author of the paper states that in the Kant categorical imperative perspective, the company should do what is right. Matters considered right always have benefits to the people that require showing concern to other people. Besides, what is right for the company requires acceptance from the majority hence considering their opinions.  Communitarianism deals with considering the responsibilities in the community rather than a single individual. In the organization, this ethical perspective focuses on promoting the values that people share in addressing differences in the cultures. In the process of addressing the cultural difference and using only universal values, leaders always show concern for every individual and implement altruism in the process. Considering others rather than a single individual is an action that is in altruism. The showing of concern before and in the process of trying to promote communal values is an act of altruism. Hence, it is justifiable to state that altruism is the prerequisite of other ethical perspectives such as utilitarianism and communitarianism. The process of using these ethical perspectives requires consideration and concern to other people before taking actions.

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Digital graphics Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Digital graphics - Assignment Example Additionally, there have been developments in printers since they were first created, where they were very slow and basic printers. They used to be expensive at the time unlike now, where one can purchase them easily. The only problem is that such printers take a long time to print and therefore, shows how much printers have upgraded but expensive. To add to this there are new printers that have come up and made currently, as well as increases speed of printing as well as lowers costs (Niemeyer, 2008, 23-144). Development of mobile phones also has a big effect on the design and creation of images. Latest mobile phones’ models have cameras, which can be used to take photos and transfer them to a computer using either Bluetooth technology or a data cable. In addition, some mobile phones have such as latest smart phones have inbuilt softwares that can be used to edit images. E-book readers have also had a great impact on the design and creation of images. E-books are now designed in such a way that they are compatible with both the computers and

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Natural Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Natural Law - Essay Example They are based on social advantage and the practical effects they make on the society and the community. The author claims that the beliefs and wishes that are held by the human kind or more specifically a human has some transcendental basis and by this a hint in the religious side of matter relies. The foundational sense of it all is arbitrary and that men cannot help themselves in feeling or understanding it. The necessity to survive is a great struggle and condition which involves eating and drinking. Without survival basis nothing makes sense in the world of humans and the habitat that they possess 1. As this suggests that laws are present for the benefit of the community and not a single individual but if categorized, they are then aimed for the benefit of the man, which is a part of the larger community. By â€Å"transcendental basis†, Holmes means that the religious values or other inner morals that the individual holds. In no way are the laws that are made constant but they rather keep changing with the society as per need. In reference to Homes view on the natural law and his take on the general idea, it seems that most of it is influenced by Social Darwinism and the social pragmatic values of the society which are more influenced by the society we live in. He asserts that laws are made and adapted according to the environment of man and are not dictated from generations to generations and this is a slow but gradual process of betterment. Holmes position in the paper is made clear that he believes in the changes of the environment as a trigger to implement or change the existing laws that are held by the mankind. The morality of every law and moral consciousness depends on the ideology held by the society or the individuals that shape up the society. Holmes justifies his position on a clear stance of moral consciousness and the

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Block Diagram Of A Communication System Computer Science Essay

Block Diagram Of A Communication System Computer Science Essay The doorway to the nowadays wireless communication systems was opened by Guglielmo Marconi when he transmitted the three-dot Morse code for alphabet S by the use of electromagnetic waves over a 3-KM link in 1895. This laid the foundation of modern communication systems ranging from broadcasting, satellite transmission and radio eventually progressing to nowadays cell phones. It wouldnt be wrong to say that wireless communication has indeed revolutionized our present society A sudden increase has been observed in the expansion of radio systems during the last two decades. We have seen great evolution in Wireless communication systems from 1G narrowband analog systems in the 1980s to the 2G narrowband digital systems in the 1990s. Now the existing 3G wideband multimedia systems are being deployed. In the meantime, research and progress in the future-generation wideband multimedia radio systems is vigorously being pursued worldwide. To connect mobile users to the public switched network the United States introduced first radiotelephone service by the end of the 1940s. Improved Mobile Telephone Service was launched by Bell Systems in 1960s due to which lots of improvements like direct dialing and increase in bandwidth took place. IMTS formed the bases of the first analog cellular systems. The term cellular was used due to the fact that coverage areas were split cells, they had a low power transmitter and receiver. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Figure 1. Block diagram of a general communication system. ANALOG vs. DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Definition of Digital A method of storing, processing and transmitting information through the use of distinct electronic or optical pulses that represent the binary digits 0 and 1. Advantages of Digital low-priced reliable Easy to manipulate Flexible Compatible with other digital systems The information in digital form can only be transmitted without any degradation through a noisy channel Incorporated networks Disadvantages of Digital Sampling Error As compared to analogue, larger bandwidth is required in digital communications for the transmission of the same information. Synchronization in the communications system is required to recognize the digital signals, but this is not the case with analogue systems. Definition of Analogue Analogue is a transmission standard that uses electrical impulses to emulate the audio waveform of sound. When you use a phone, the variations in your voice are transformed by a microphone into similar variations in an electrical signal and carried down the line to the exchange. Advantages of Analogue less bandwidth is required More Accurate Disadvantages of Analogue Signal loss and distortion can be seen due to the effects of random noise which is impossible to recover GENERATIONS OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS The concept of cellular telephony was introduced in AMPS, short for Advanced Mobile Phone Systems. AMPS divided the total area into small regions called cells and this was from where the concept of cellular telephony started. Cellular Systems had many advantages such as they increased quality, capacity, reliability and availability of mobile telephone network. The generations of cellular systems are described below. FIRST GENERATION CELLULAR SYSTEMS First generation cellular telephone systems were introduced in 1980s. They were based on Analog Frequency Modulation technique. Each channel was assigned a sole frequency. First generation cellular systems offered only wireless voice services based on analog technology. Digital signals were only used for control information such as dialing a number etc. These systems were no able to cope with the increasing demands of users also they had very less capacity and provided poor voice quality. Some first generations systems are Advanced Mobile Telephone System, AMPS NAMPS, AMPS Total Access Cellular System (TACS) Nordic Mobile Telephone System (NMT-900) SECOND GENERATION CELLULAR SYSTEMS Second Generation Cellular Systems provided larger capacity and provided much better services to users compared to first generation systems. They were based upon Digital Modulation technique which led to great enhancement in networks capacity. Second Generation Systems used multiple access techniques such as TDMA and FDMA. The biggest draw back of Second Generation Systems was that its different systems were not compatible with each other. Therefore roaming between different systems was not possible. Some of Second Generation Systems are North American Digital Cellular, NADC Global System for Mobile Communication, GSM Pacific Digital Cellular, PDC CDMAONE, IS-95 CDMA In order to overcome Second Generation compatibility problem with increased data rates of modern internet applications, 2.5 Generation standards were developed. The best thing about them was that they allowed already existing Second Generation systems to be upgraded so that they can be used for higher data rate transmission. 2.5 Generation brought a new revolution in cellular telephony by supporting services like high speed internet and location based mobile services. Some of 2.5 Generation Mobile Systems are General Packet Radio Service, GPRS Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution, EDGE THIRD GENERTAION CELLULAR SYSTEMS Designed to provide high quality and high capacity in data communication, Third Generation Systems require sophisticated spreading and modulation techniques. Third Generation Systems are aimed to provide voice quality comparable to land line telephony and also to support high data rate. These systems are compatible with circuit switched as well as packet switched data services. They are also compatible with the existing networks and use radio spectrum much more efficiently than before. Some Third Generation Systems are Wideband CDMA, WCDMA Universal Mobile Telephone System, UMTS CDMA 2000 BEYOND 3G The highly developed version of the 3G mobile communication are the 4G mobile communication services. It is estimated that 4G mobile communication services will give increase in capacity, data transmission with high speed, broadband, HQ color video images for users, graphic animation games in 3D, audio services in 5.1 channels. For the system and architecture of 4G mobile communication many researches are done. Developments are made in the terminal protocol technology for high speed packet services, larger capacity, enabling downloading application programs by public software platform technology, multimode radio access platform technology, and high quality media coding technology over mobile networks. Why 4G? Services like wireless internet and teleconferencing can be carried by 4G. Global mobility and service portability. Wider bandwidths. Increased bit rates. Less expensive. Mobile networks can easily be scaled. CHAPTER # 02 Multiplexing is a process in which a single carrier is used to transmit several different signals. These several signals are transmitted all together by combining them and forming one signal that will effectively move through the carrier bandwidth. When one transmission is done and the signal reaches the destination point, the integrated signal re-assembles into its actual form and is then received. Multiplexing is one of the most used techniques today in almost every communication system. Because of the technological advance multiplexing, we have seen major increase in efficiency of a wide range of telephony services and online applications. Multiplexing has become an effective technique that assists in everything from video conferences and web conferences up to bulk data transmissions and even making a simple Point-to-Point phone call. FDMA: FDMA is the most usual technique used for multiple accessing. FDMA stands for frequency division multiple access. It is clear from its name that in this technique the frequency is divided among the users as the available spectrum is shared among them in the frequency domain. The message signals are transmitted onto carriers for different users using particular RF frequencies. Within FDMA structural design the Single Channel Per Carrier (SPSC) is the simplest method where each channel is provided with a separate carrier. This scheme finds its essence in the fact that the channels are assigned on the basis of demand. Within a cell all the channels are available to all users all the time, and the channels are assigned as soons as a message signal is received or a request is made. Guard bands are used to reduce the chances of interference from adjacent channels. These guard bands are present between the bands allocated for various channels. In the implementation of the first analog cellular systems, FDMA is the multiplexing technique that was used. TDMA: Time division multiple access techniques allots different time intervals to different users for the transmission of signals and storage of the data is carried out in one frequency channel not like FDMA which uses one frequency per channel. Users are allowed to use the same frequency but the time slots are divided. In TDMA techniques the available spectrum is divided into small frequency bands as in FDMA, which are further sub-divided into various time slots. The user can access the frequency channel only for time slot allotted to him. User can use periodically the particular duration of time. In TDMA systems, guard bands are required between both frequency channels and time slots. SDMA: SDMA stands for Space-Division Multiple Access. It is a MIMO (Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output, a multiple antenna schematic architecture) based wireless communication network architecture. It enables access to a communication channel by the process of identifying the user location and establishing a one-on-one mapping between the network bandwidth allotment and the acknowledged spatial location that is why its mostly suitable for mobile ad-hoc networks. For majority of the well known mobile communication architectures such as CDMA, TDMA and FDMA, SDMA architecture can be configured and implemented CDMA: CDMA stands for Code division multiple access. CDMA systems are based on the spread spectrum technique. In which transmissions by all the users are carried out simultaneously while operating at the same frequency and using the entire spectrum bandwidth. For the identification and extraction of required transmission, each user is allotted with a unique code which cannot match with any other user. This issue of identification is due to the fact that all the users transmit simultaneously. To ensure this privacy, pseudo-random noise codes or PN codes are used. These codes are actually the orthogonal codes and its advantage is that it reduces the chances of cross correlation among themselves. By using this PN code assigned to the specific user, modulation of the message signal from an individual user is done. Then we have the CDMA frequency channel through which all the modulated signals from different users are transmitted. At the receivers end, the desired signal is then recovered by de-spreading the signal with a replica of the PN code for the specific user. The signals whose PN codes are not matched with the desired signal and are assigned to different users are not de-spread and as a result are regarded as noise by the receiver. CDMA differs from both TDMA and FDMA in a way that it allows users to transmit the signal at the same time and operate at the same nominal frequency so it requires less synchronization whereas in TDMA and FDMA frequency and time management is very critical so more dynamic synchronization is required. One more advantage of CDMA is that complete systems spectrum is used by signals and hence no guard bands are required to protect against adjacent channel interference. Intro to Spread Spectrum Communications Following are the major elements that can clearly describe the Spread Spectrum communications: By spread spectrum, bandwidth far in excess is available than that is necessary to send the information. Due to this characteristic the transmission can be protected against interference and jamming at the same time providing multiple access capability. An independent code known as the Pseudo random code is used for signal spreading across the bandwidth. The distinct nature of this code separates spread spectrum communications from typical modulation techniques in which modulation always spreads the spectrum somewhat. For the recovery of the original signal the receiver is synchronized to the deterministic pseudo random code. Users can transmit the signal at the same time and operate at the same nominal frequency by using independent code and synchronous reception. In order to protect the signal from interference a pseudo-random code is used. It appears to be random to anyone who does not have its pre-defined knowledge but in reality is deterministic, it is because of this fact that receiver is able to reconstruct the code needed for the recovery of the required data signal. This code used for synchronous detection is also called Pseudo noise sequence. Types of Spread Spectrum Communications Spreading of bandwidth of the signal can be achieved by three ways: Frequency hopping The signal is shuffled between different centre frequencies within the entire bandwidth available to the hopper pseudo-randomly, and the receiver used already knows where to look for the signal at a given time. Time hopping The signal is transmitted in short bursts pseudo-randomly, and the receiver knows when a burst is expected. Direct sequence Very high frequency is used to code the digital data. The code is pseudo-randomly generated. The same code is generated at the receiver end, and in order to extract the original data this code is multiplied to the received information stream. CHAPTER # 03 SOURCE CODING AND DIGITAL MODULATION 3.0 INTRODUCTION Digital Modulation is performed in order to represent digital data in a format that is compatible with our communication channel. Why Digital Modulation? Digital modulation schemes have greater capacity to convey large amounts of information than analog modulation schemes. 3.1 DIGITAL DATA, DIGIITAL SIGNAL Digital signal is binary data encoded into signal elements. Different encoding schemes for encoding digital data into digital signal are: 3.1.1 Non Return to Zero (NRZ) In NRZ there are two different voltage levels for 0 and 1. There is no transition in the middle of the bit. The absence of signal denotes 0 and a positive voltage level denotes 1. Figure 3.1, Non Return to Zero (NRZ) The major drawback of NRZ scheme is that it adds a dc component to the signal. 3.1.2 Multilevel Binary (AMI) In this encoding scheme there are more than two levels. No signal represents 0 and 1 is represented by some positive and negative voltage level. 1s pulses are opposite in polarity. Figure 3.2, Multilevel Binary (AMI) There is no dc component in this scheme and also there is no loss of synchronization for consecutive 1s. 3.1.3 Manchester Coding There is transition in middle of each bit, which acts as a clock as well as data. The low to high transition represents 1 and high to low represents 0. Figure 3.3, Manchester Coding 3.1.4 Differential Manchester In this scheme transition at the middle of the bit represents only clocking while transition at start represents 0 and no transition at start represents 1. Figure 3.4, Differential Manchester 3.2 ANALOG DATA, DIGITAL SIGNAL Analog data is first converted into digital data by using analog to digital converters. These converters use different techniques to complete their task, some of them are: 3.2.1 Pulse Code Modulation If a signal is sampled at regular intervals at a rate higher than twice the highest signal frequency, the samples contain all the information of the original signal. Each sample is assigned a digital value. Although its quality is comparable to that of analog transmission but still in this process some information is lost and the original signal can never be recovered. Figure 3.5, Pulse Code Modulation Delta Modulation Analog input is approximated by a staircase function. Function moves up or down at each sample interval by one level (d). Figure 3.6, Delta Modulation Delta modulation is easier than PCM in implementation, but it exhibits worse signal to noise ratio for the same data rate. But it is good for data compression. DIGITAL DATA, ANALOG SIGNAL Different digital modulation techniques are: Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) A modulation technique in which digital data is represented as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave is called Amplitude-shift keying (ASK). One binary digit is represented by presence of carrier, at constant amplitude and the other binary digit represented by absence of carrier. Figure 3.7, Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) 3.3.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) In frequency shift keying different frequencies are used to represent incoming digital data. Say in case of Binary Frequency Shift Keying f1 is used to represent 0 while f2 is used to represent 1. Figure 3.8, Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) In MFSK more than two frequencies are used and hence bandwidth is more efficiently utilized. 3.3.3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) A digital modulation technique in which data is transmitted by modulating and changing the phase of the reference signal is called Phase-shift keying (PSK). In case of PSK, a finite number of phases are used. A unique pattern of binary bits is assigned to each of these phases. Generally, each phase encodes an equal number of bits. The symbol is formed by each pattern of bits that is represented by the particular phase. Figure 3.9, Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Figure 3.10, Constellation Diagram of BPSK The bandwidth of ASK and PSK are specified as: Whereas the bandwidth of FSK is given as: Where, R is the bit rate DF = f2 fc = fc f1 CHAPTER # 04 CHANNEL CODING 4.0 INTRODUCTION Why Channel Coding? In modern digital communication systems information is represented in bit streams, which are then modulated to analog waveforms before being transmitted onto a channel. At receiver this analog information is demodulated into bit streams, but because of the presence of interference and noise in the communication channel this bit stream may be corrupted. So to minimize occurrence of bits in error and protect digital data from channel noise and interference channel coding is used. How Channel Coding is performed? Additional redundant bits are added to the message data stream to perform channel coding, these extra bits assist in error detection and correction at the receivers end. Channel Coding at the cost of? Channel Coding is performed at the cost of bandwidth expansion and data rate reduction. 4.1 TYPES OF CHANNEL CODING TECHNIQUES There are two main types of channel coding techniques, Block Codes Convolutional Codes. Block Codes accepts k number of information bits and generate a block of n number of encoded bits, and thus are commonly known as (n.k) block codes. Some common examples of block codes are Hamming Codes and Reed Solomon Codes. Convolutional Coding is forward error correction technique that is currently most widely used in modern communication systems, this particular technique is used for real-time error correction. Unlike block codes which append redundant bits at the end of original message signal, Convolutional coding form a new codeword using original data stream. The encoded bits are not solely dependent on k current input bits but at the same time on precedent input bits. 4.2 CONVOLUTIONAL CODES In this project Convolutional Coding is implemented. Convolutional Codes are further classified as 1. Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) 2.Turbo Codes. Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) is non recursive, non systematic and does not require an interleaver. Turbo Codes on the other hand are recursive, systematic, parallel structured and they also require interleaver. In Wideband CDMA systems TCM is used for all channels while Turbo Codes may be used for DCH and FACH channels. Turbo Codes are sometimes classified as separate branch of Channel Codes so from here onwards word Convolutional Code will only be used for TCM. Types of Transmission Channels Coding Schemes Coding Rate RACH Convolutional Coding 1/2 BCH PCH DCH, FACH 1/2, 1/3 Turbo Coding 1/3 Table 4.1, WCDMA Specifications 4.3 CONVOLUTIONAL CODE REPRESENTATIONS 4.3.1 Polynomial Representation No. of input information bits = k No. of encoded bits = n No. of stages (Constraint Length) = K Code Rate = k/n Encoded CodeWord = U The following example shows how Convolutional Codes are represented. Let g1(x) and g2(x) be encoder polynomials, where g1(x) = 1 + x + x2 g2(x) = 1 + x2 Let input message bit stream be 101, therefore input message bit stream polynomial will be, m(x) = 1 + x2 The encoded codeword U will be combination of product of g1(x) with m(x) and g2(x) with m(x), m(x) x g1(x) = 1 + 1.x + 0.x2 + 1.x3 + 1.x4 m(x) x g2(x) = 1 + 0.x + 0.x2 + 0.x3 + 1.x4 Therefore the codeword U, becomes U = (1,1) + (1,0).x + (0,0).x2 + (1,0).x3 + (1,1).x4 U = 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 4.3.2 State Transition Diagram Convolutional Coding can be represented using State Transition Diagram. Following are State Transition Diagram and State Transition Table for code rate 1/2. Figure 4.1, State Transition Diagram for Code Rate  ½ Table 4.2, State Transition Table for Code Rate  ½ Again for the same input bit stream 10100, the codeword U = 11 10 00 10 11. In the input message last two 00 bits are tail bits. 4.3.2 Block Diagram Representation The following diagram shows block diagram representation of Convolutional Coding with Code Rate = 1/2 Constraint Length (No. of Stages) = 3 Figure 4.2, Block Diagram Representation of Convolutional Code with Code Rate =  ½ The following example illustrates the process of Convolutional Coding using block diagram representation for input bit stream 101. So the final codeword becomes, U = 11 10 00 10 11 4.3.2 Trellis Diagram Representation For input bit stream 101, the following diagram shows how Convolutional Coding is performed using Trellis Diagram Figure 4.3, Trellis Diagram Representation CHAPTER # 05 PULSE SHAPING TECHNIQUES 3.0 INTRODUCTION Why Pulse Shaping? It is done in order to reduce Inter Symbol Interference commonly known as ISI. How Pulse Shaping is performed? In order to achieve zero-ISI the overall system response must be equal to Nyquist frequency response. 5.1 RAISED COSINE FILTER Inter Symbol Interference significantly degrades the data detector ability to differentiate between a current symbol from diffused energy of adjacent symbol. This leads to the detection of error and increases BER. So in order to cater ISI, a real-time realization of Nyquist filter is applied in modern communication systems. Raised cosine filter is one of the realization of Nyquist filter. where r = roll-off factor = 1 ≠¤ r ≠¤ 0 and T = symbol period = 1/R Roll-off factor determines the filter bandwidth and represents a trade-off between the sharpness of the transition band of the filter and impulse response ringing magnitude of the filter. A Nyquist filter has following properties: Time response eventually goes to zero in a time period exactly equal to the symbol spacing. By sampling the symbol sequence at a given symbol time point, present symbol is not affected by the energy spreading from the adjacent symbols. The impulse response and the frequency response of the RC filter is Figure 5.1, Impulse Response of RC Filter Figure 5.2, Frequency Response of RC Filter Time response of the RC filter goes to zero with a period that exactly equal to the symbol spacing. As the response equals zero at all symbol times except for the desired one none of the adjacent symbols interfere with each other. 5.2 ROOT RAISED COSINE FILTER RC filter is divided into a root raised cosine (RRC) filter pair, with one at the transmitter end, which performs the pulse shaping in order to constrain the modulated signal bandwidth, and the other at the receiver end, that performs matched detection for optimizing the SNR of a known signal in AWGN presence. The Root Raised Cosine filter is so named because its transfer function exactly is the square root of the transfer function of the Raised Cosine filter. Where r = roll off factor and T is symbol period. The RRC filter bandwidth is equal to the root mean square (RMS) amplitude 2R. The impulse response and the frequency response of the RRC filter is Figure 5.3, Impulse Response of RRC Filter Figure 5.4, Frequency Response of RRC Filter Both RC and RRC have similar pulse shapes, but the RRC pulse makes slightly faster transitions, therefore the spectrum of RRC pulse decays more rapidly as compared to the RC pulse. Another important difference between both pulses is that the RRC pulse does not have zero Inter Symbol Interference. Because of the fact that RRC filter is used at transmitter and receiver both, the product of these transfer functions is a raised cosine, which will result in zero ISI output. 5.3 ROLL OFF FACTOR The roll-off factor, r, is a measure of the excess bandwidth of the filter, i.e. the bandwidth occupied beyond the Nyquist bandwidth of 1/2T. Where à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  f is excess bandwidth and Rs is symbol rate. CHAPTER # 06 SPREAD SPECTRUM Spread spectrum is a type of modulation where the data is spread across the entire frequency spectrum. This process of spreading the data across the entire spectrum helps signal against noise and interference. These techniques are mostly employed in cell phones and also with wireless LANs. To qualify as a spread spectrum signal, two criterions must be met The transmitted signal bandwidth must be in excess of the information bandwidth. Some function other than the data being transmitted is used to establish the bandwidth of the resultant transmission. Why Spread Spectrum ? Due to its exclusive and peculiar properties spread spectrum is preferred over other modulation schemes. Some of these properties are characterized as advantages and disadvantages of a basic spread spectrum system below. Advantages †¢ It reduces the effects of multipath interference and at times removes them entirely. †¢ Frequency band is shared simultaneously with other users. †¢ Pseudo random codes ensure protection of transmission and privacy. †¢ As the signal is spread over an entire spectrum it has a low power spectral density. Disadvantages †¢ Due to spreading operation it consumes more bandwidth. †¢ It is at times difficult to implement. Types of Spread Spectrum Techniques Most commonly used techniques in a spread spectrum systems are Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum A frequency hopping spread spectrum hops from one narrow band to another all within a wider band. In general the frequency hopper transmitter sends data packets at one carrier frequency and then jumps to another carrier frequency before sending ore packets and continues the same routine throughout the period of transmission. The pattern that emerges seems to be random but is in fact periodic and easily traceable by pre configured transmitter and receiver. These systems can be vulnerable to noise at a particular hop but usually are able to send packets during the next hop. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Most widely used technique of spread spectrum is the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. A Direct Sequence Transmitter receives the incoming data stream which is to be transmitted and then converts it into a symbol stream where the size of a symbol can be one or more bits. Using any of the modulation schemes for digital systems such as Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) or Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) this symbol stream is multiplied to a noise like sequence known as pseudo random sequence. It is also know as a chip sequence. As a result of this multiplication the bandwidth of the transmission is significantly increased. Figure 3. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum System Figure 3. shows the working of a basic Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum system. For clarity purposes, one channel is shown working in one direction only. Transmission For each channel a distinct and different Pseudo random code is generated. In order to spread the data the data stream is multiplied with the previously generated Pseudo random code. The signal obtained as a result of this multiplication is then modulated onto a carrier. This modulated carrier waveform is then amplified before broadcasting. Reception The carrier wave is amplified as soon as it is received by the receiver. The signal received is then multiplied with a locally generated carrier which gives the spreaded signal. Again a Pseudo random code is generated on the basis of the signal expected. The process of correlation is carried out on the received signal and the generated code which gives the original message signal. Pseudo-Random Noise The spread spectrum systems are constructed very similar to other conventional systems. The difference being the addition of pseudo random generators both at the transmitter and the receiver which generate the Pseudo noise sequences required for the functionality of Direct Sequence spread spectrum. These pseudo random noise sequences are used for spreading the signal at the transmitter side and dispreading at the receiv